Class 10, Democracy and Diversity - NCERT Solutions of Chapter 3 Democratic Politics | CBSE Guide for Political Science


Class 10 CBSE Guide for Political Science

Chapter 3, Democracy and Diversity (Democratic Politics II)

NCERT Solutions of Exercise Questions - NCERT Answers of Intext Questions

Question 1: Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics and social divisions.
Answer:  Following are the three factors crucial in deciding the outcomes of politics of social divisions -
i. How people perceive their identities: If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate other identities.
ii. How political leaders raise the demands of any community: While representing a community, if politicians raise demands it is easier to accommodate those demands which are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
iii. How the government of a region reacts to demands of different social groups: If the reasonable demands of a community are suppressed by the government, then it may lead to social divisions, which in turn threaten the integrity of the society and the country. In other words, minorities should also be taken care of with the majority.

Question 2: When does a social difference become a social division?
Answer:  Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with many other social differences. For example, the Blacks and the Whites in America are socially different because of their racial differences. But this difference becomes a social division in the US since, Blacks are generally poor, homeless and discriminated.

Question 3: How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples.
Answer: Social divisions affect politics when political parties start taking wrong advantage of such divisions to create vote banks in their favour. This is a selfish act for which political parties and leaders do false propaganda in support of social divisions just to create political polarizations which is highly detrimental for the peace and unity of a country. For example -  
i. If social division is of such type that people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. For example, as long as people in Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile.
ii. If social division is of such type that the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demand of minority community, social division becomes less threatening. For example, in Belgium, the demands of Dutch and French speaking people could be accommodated without harming one another and the country.

Question 4: _______ social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. _____ social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
Answer:  Overlapping, Cross-cutting.

Question 5: In dealing with social divisions which one of the following statements is NOT correct about democracy?
a. Due to political competition in a democracy, social divisions get reflected in politics.
b. In a democracy it is possible for communities to voice their grievances in a peaceful manner.
c. Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversity.
d. Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.
Answer:  d. Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

Question 6: Consider the following three statements.
A. Social divisions take place when social differences overlap.
B. It is possible that a person can have multiple identities.
C. Social divisions exist in only big countries like India.
Which of the statements is/are correct?
(a) A, B and C. (b) A and B. (c) B and C. (d) Only C.
Answer: (b) A and B.

Question 7: Arrange the following statements in a logical sequence and select the right answers by using the code given below.
A. But all political expression of social divisions need not be always dangerous.
B. Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries.
C. Parties try to win political support by appealing to social divisions.
D. Some social differences may result in social divisions.
Answer: D, B, C, A.

Question 8: Among the following, which country suffered disintegration due to political fights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities?
(a) Belgium. (b) India. (c) Yugoslavia. (d) Netherlands.
Answer:  (c) Yugoslavia.

Question 9: read the following passage from a famous speech by Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963. Which social division is he talking about? What are his aspirations and anxieties? Do you see a relationship between this speech and the incident in Mexico Olympic mentioned in this chapter?
“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. Let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring – when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children – black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics – will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: ‘Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!’ I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal’.
i. He is talking about social division based on singular identity, i.e., overlapping social differences. He is referring to the segregation policies adopted by the Whites towards the Coloured people.
ii. He aspires for a society practising equality and free from any type of discrimination. He is anxious about identifying people by their skin colour and not judged by the content of their character.
iii. Yes, his speech reflects the pain of social division based on the colour of skin. As this was also reflected and protested by the Black Olympians at Mexico Olympics.

Class 10, Democracy and Diversity - Must Study

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