Class 9, Peasants and Farmers - Solutions of CBSE Guide and Guess Questions for Chapter 6 NCERT History

Chapter 6, Peasants and Farmers

Class IX History CBSE Guide | CBSE Guess | CBSE History Questions Answers

Additional Short Answer type CBSE Guess Questions
Question 1: Who was Captain Swing?
Answer: It was a mythical name used in the threatening letters sent to the landowners to destroy their threshers themselves which deprived workmen of their livelihood.

Question 2: Why did the whole region of the Great Plains become a dust bowl?
Answer: The persistent drought during the 1930s coupled with the ever increasing greed of the zealous farmers who had recklessly uprooted all vegetation, facilitated the winds to blow with a furious speed and turn the whole region into a dust bowl.

Question 3: Which were the two major commercial crops grown in India in the 19th century during the colonial period?
Answer: Indigo and opium.

Question 4: What was the difference in making the enclosures in the 16th century and in the 18th century?
Answer: In the sixteenth century, the enclosures were made to promote sheep farming but in the eighteenth century, the enclosures were made to increase grain production.

Question 5: What were the advantages of the enclosures to the landlords?
Answer:
(1) They were found necessary for long term investments on land.
(2) Enclosures proved useful for promoting sheep farming and increasing food production.
(3) Enclosures also enabled the richer landowners to expand the land under their control.

Question 6: In 1960s’ why did the farmers begin growing turnip and clove?
Answer: Because turnip and clove were good fodders for cattle. Moreover, cultivation of turnip and clove increased the nitrogen content of the soil which proved quite useful for the growth of other crops as well.

CBSE Guide for Class 9 Geography Lesson 6, Population | Solutions of CBSE long questions


NCERT Questions Bank | CBSE NCERT Solution | CBSE Guess | CBSE Guide NCERT Solution | CBSE Sample Questions

Class 9 Social Geography - Chapter 6, POPULATION


 Also study: Additional CBSE Questions Answers from this chapter already posted in our earlier posts (click the links given below)
Long Answer-Type CBSE Questions 
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Question 21. Write a short note on: Urbanisation in India.
Or
What is the impact of fast - growing cities of India on the environment and available civic amenities?
Or
Write a brief account on the impact of rapid urbanisation in India.
Or
Why has the rapid growth of population in the metropolitan cities of India become a serious problem? Explain any five consequences of the same.
Answer: Many causes, such as relative stagnation of agriculture in rural areas, desire of the people to get jobs in towns and cities and attraction for facilities available in urban areas or cities, have led the rural people to migrate to urban areas.
Impact of Rapid Urbanisation in Fast Growing Cities of India:
But this migration of the people from rural to urban areas is very baneful or harmful. This has led to the rapid growth of population of cities, particularly of the metropolitan cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai etc. Such a thing has led to various problems.
(1) Impact on Agriculture- In agriculture so many hands are required both at the sowing, reaping and the harvesting time. But when people would migrate to cities, the work in the fields is bound to suffer. In such a case, we once again can be forced to beg our food from other countries.
(2) Impact on Environment- When more and more people will migrate to cities, they would naturally expand beyond limits leading to various problems. The congestion in cities would have a very bad effect on environment. Too much smoke of numerous vehicles would lead to suffocation. Not only this, the need for more land for housing would have a very bad affect on greenery. Every green field around cities would be devoured within no time resulting in ecological imbalance. Even green parts within the city is on a constant decline giving place to slums and dirty congestions.
(3) Impact on Public Facilities- Every city has a limited scope for expansion. Its roads, sewage lines, water supply etc can cope with the needs of its residents to a certain limit. But the continuous migration of rural people to nearby cities even before creation of basic amenities is ultimately destructing the city infrastructure.
(4) Problem on Slums- The continuous flow of rural people to cities is giving rise to slums. These clusters of illegal structures with no amenities for water, sewage, toilets are a great blot on the fair name of the cities.
(5) Too Much Congestion- Cities are mostly congested but when more and more people flock them they become too much congested and prone to accidents. Over-crowding adds to pollution which is both dangerous and health-hazarding.
Question 22. Why is it important to study population?
Or
What is the purpose of studying population?
Answer:
Study of population is very important because -
(1) First of all by studying population, even after ten years, tell us the exact number of people in our country only by knowing the number of people living in our country. We can know where we are going and what steps we should take to avoid the coming catastrophe as a result of the unrestricted rise of population. No county can ever think of advancing forward with the addition of so many people in its population every year. So studying population is a must for every country.
(2) Secondly, by studying population, we can know the distribution of population in our country and where more emphasis is to be laid for the development and uplift of the area.
(3) Thirdly, by studying population, we can know the sex ratio in our country and take proper steps for the welfare of the weaker sections of the society including both woman and girl-child.
(4) Fourthly, only by studying population, we can know the age composition of the people and how much burden of the dependent population (children and old people) the working population has to bear.
(5) Fifthly, it is only by studying population, we can know as to how many people are engaged in primary, secondary and tertiary occupations and what steps we should take to bring about a change in occupational structure of our country.
(6) Sixthly, it is only by studying population that we can know the level of literacy in our country and think what steps we should take to remove illiteracy from our country.
(7) Seventhly, it is only by studying the data of our population, that we can know how many adolescents (people in the age group of 10 to 19) are there in our country and what special steps we can take to bring them up so that they may prove good citizens for the country.
(8) Lastly, it is by only studying population that we can chalk out our National Population Policy and think of measures both for containing the rise of our population and take desired methods for its welfare.

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Question 23. What could be the reason of uneven distribution of population in India?
Or
What are the factors which influence the population distribution?
Answer: It is not only in India but uneven distribution of population or the varying population density is a worldwide phenomena. Population density in India varies from 904 persons per sq.km in West Bengal to only 13 persons per sq.km in Arunachal Pradesh. Following are the various reasons of uneven distribution of population in India:
(1) Geographical Factors- Favourable topography, availability of mineral and freshwater resources, favourable climate and soil fertility are some of the reasons affecting population distribution. For example, Indo-Gangetic Plains and Kerala in the South have high to very high density because of flat plains, fertile soils, abundant rains etc. States like Rajasthan, J&K, and Arunachal Pradesh etc. are sparsely populated because of unfavourable climate and topography.
(2) Social and Cultural Factors- Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more populated. Places of religious and cultural significance also attract people. For example, Delhi, Varanasi etc.
(3) Economic Factors- Places having more industries, better transportation and communication facilities provide better employment opportunities. People from other areas migrate to these places because of the above reasons. For example- Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi and other metropolitan cities and state like Punjab, Haryana, etc.
 Other study materials from Class IX, Chapter 6 Population
1. For NCERT answers of textbook exercise, click -
2. For important terms, Very Short and Short answer type CBSE questions, click -
3. For more click -
Class 9 Social Geography all Chapters’ solution and guide

Hindi Essay & Paragraph, Nibandh on अनुशासन Discipline | छात्र - अनुशासन Students Discipline | Chhatra Anushasan | अनुशासन और विद्यार्थी जीवन Anushasan aur Vidyarthi Jeevan | जीवन में अनुशासन के महत्व Importance of Discipline in Life

'अनुशासन' शब्द 'शासन' के साथ 'अनु' उपसर्ग जोड़ने से बना है, जिसका अर्थ है 'शासन के पीछे' अर्थात 'शासन के पीछे चलना'। गुरुजनों तथा श्रेष्ठजनों के नियंत्रण में रहकर नियमबद्ध जीवनयापन तथा उनकी आज्ञाओं का पालन करना ही अनुशासन कहलाता है। इस प्रकार अनुशासन शारीरिक एवं वैचारिक नियमों का पालन है। 
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अनुशासन हमारे जीवन की केन्द्रस्थ धुरी है। विद्यार्थी और अनुशासन (Vidyarthi aur Anushasan / Students and Discipline) का संबंध अत्यंत घनिष्ठ है । अनुशासन के बिना कोई व्यक्ति विद्यार्थी नहीं हो सकता । अनुशासन-हीन विद्यार्थी या व्यक्ति न तो देश का सभ्य नागरिक बन सकता है और न अपने व्यक्तिगत जीवन में ही सफल हो सकता है। वैसे तो जीवन के प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में अनुशासन परमवाश्यक है, परन्तु विद्यार्थी-जीवन (Vidyarthi Jeevan / Student Life)  के लिए यह सफलता की एकमात्र कुंजी है। जो विद्यार्थी अपने माता-पिता, गुरु की आज्ञा का उल्लंघन करता है, उनके द्वारा बताए गए मार्ग में नहीं चलता, वह शिक्षित नहीं हो सकता; अपने जीवन में पद, प्रतिष्ठा एवं धन - सभी से वंचित रहता है। चाहे युद्ध के मैदान हो या खेल के मैदान, विजयी वही होते हैं जो इनमें अनुशासित रहकर आगे बढ़ते हैं। अनुशासन का हमारे जीवन में कई लाभ हैं। अनुशासन न केवल हमारे जीवन को प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में सफलता दिलाता है साथ ही सम्मान भी दिलाता है। अनुशासन द्वारा ही जीवन में उच्च आदर्शों को प्राप्त किया जाता है। अतः, अनुशासन जीवन की चतुर्दिक सफलता का महामंत्र है। जैसे पुष्प सुई और धागे का अनुशासन मानकर हार बन जाते हैं, वैसे ही जीवन नियमों एवं नीतियों का अनुशासन मानकर महान बन जाता है। हम महापुरुषों के जीवन पर थोड़ा दृष्टिपात करें, तो अनुशासन की लाभ-हानि से परिचित हो जाएंगे। महात्मा गाँधी, स्वामी विवेकानन्द आदि के जीवन अनुशासन की डोरी से ही बंधा था। 
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अनुशासन कई तरह से आता है। जब हम छोटे रहते हैं तब परिवार या गुरुजनों पर निर्भर और उनकी आज्ञा के अनुसार चलकर अनुशासन से अभ्यस्त होते हैं। फिर बड़े होने पर, समाज के बीच आने और खाने-कमाने पर कुछ सामाजिक क़ायदे और सरकारी क़ानून हमें अनुशासन (discipline) में रखते हैं। परिवार, गुरुजनों की सीख, समाज के आचार-व्यबहार, शिक्षा प्रणाली और सरकारी क़ानून - अनुशासन के यह पाँच स्तम्भ हैं। इनमें समय, देश तथा समाज की आवश्यकता के अनुसार बदलाव तो होता है, मगर हमें ध्यान रखना है कि यह बदलाव सही ढंग से और तर्क के आधार पर हो। 

एक अनुशासनहीन व्यक्ति न तो अपना कोई काम ठीक ढंग से ठीक समय पर कर सकता है और न ही अपने विचारों का प्रयोग किसी खास दिशा में (In a particular Direction) कर सकता है। जब कोई विद्यार्थी अनुशासन में रहने लायक नहीं होते तब उन्हें आश्रम, विद्यालय से अलग कर दिया जाता था क्योंकि वैसे छात्र विद्या पाने पर भी समाज को केवल हानि पहुँचाते थे। एक अनुशासनहीन छात्र अपने माता-पिता और गुरुजन को मानसिक कष्ट (Mental Tension) तो देते ही हैं साथ-साथ बड़े होकर ऐसा व्यक्ति केवल बुरे कार्यों से देश को भी नुकसान पहुँचाते हैं ।असल में अपने स्वार्थ से परे न्याय-बुद्धि के अनुसार चलना ही अनुशासन है और यह अनुशासन व्यक्ति को सही अर्थ में सामाजिक बनाता है। अतः, यदि हम समाज और राष्ट्र की उन्नती चाहते हैं, उन्हें शक्तिशाली बनाना चाहते हैं, तो इसके लिये आवश्यक हैं कि परिवार, गुरुजन, समाज और न्याय के प्रति हम अनुशासित हों। छात्र-छात्राओं में अनुशासन स्थापित किये बिना देश का कल्याण नहीं हो सकता। आज का विद्यार्थी कल का सभ्य नागरिक नहीं हो सकता जब तक ना हमारी शिक्षा-व्यवस्था में नैतिक और चारित्रिक शिक्षा पर बल देते हुए आमूल परिवर्तन किए जाए। जिससे छात्र (Chhatra Anushsan) जो कि देश का भविष्य हैं, उन्हें अपने कर्तव्य और अकर्तव्य का ज्ञान हो जाए। देश के सभ्य एवं जिम्मेदार नागरिक का निर्माण प्रत्येक माता-पिता, शिक्षकों तथा अधयापकों के हाथ में है। अतः, उन्हें भी अपने कर्तव्यों का पालन सही ढंग से करना होगा। जब हम स्वयं अनुशासित होंगे, तभी किसी दूसरे को अनुशासित रख सकेंगे।

विद्यार्थियों में अनुशासन लाकर न केवल उन्हें एक स्वस्थ एवं सफल नागरिक बनाया जा सकता है बल्कि आज के समाज में फैल रहे भ्रष्टाचार (Corruption) और आतंकवाद (Terrorism) जैसे बुराइयों को भी जड़ से मिटाया जा सकता है और देश को एक अच्छा प्रशासन एवं भविष्य दिया जा सकता है ।

Editorial Letter to a Hindi Daily News Paper about problems due to water crisis - Jal Sankat pe Sampadkiya Patra - संपादकीय पत्र

Hindi Editorial Letter - Hindi Sampadkiya Patra - संपादकीय  पत्र 

अपने क्षेत्र में जल संकट से उत्पन्न कठिनाइयों का वर्णन करते हुए किसी दैनिक समाचार पत्र के संपादक को पत्र लिखिए।  

Write a letter in Hindi to the Editor of a Hindi Daily News Paper about the problems arising due to water crisis (Jal Sankat) in your locality :

सेवा में, 
मुख्य सम्पादक,
दैनिक जागरण,
बहादुरशाह ज़फर मार्ग,
नई दिल्ली 

विषय: प्रचंड जल संकट हेतु समस्याओं से जूझती विकासपूरी के लोग 

महोदय,

मैं आपके लोकप्रिय समाचार पत्र के माध्यम से सरकार तथा अन्य अधिकारियों का ध्यान नई-दिल्ली के विकासपुरी क्षेत्र में जल-संकट से उत्पन्न समस्याओं की ओर आकर्षित (आकृष्ट) करना चाहती हूँ।  आशा है की आप व्यापक जनहित को ध्यान में रखते हुए मेरा इस पत्र को प्रकाशित करने की कृपा अवश्य करेंगे।    

पिछले कुछ महीनों से हमारे क्षेत्र (विकासपुरी) में पीने का शुद्ध पानी नहीं आ रहा है। पानी का स्वाद कुछ बदला-बदला सा है। जब से पानी के स्वाद में इस प्रकार बदलाव हुआ है लोगों को कई तरह के बीमारियों का सामना करना पड़ रहा है। दस्त व हैजे की आम शिकायत बनी हुई है। अगर इसी तरह प्रदूषित पानी की आपूर्ति होती रही तो किसी महामारी की समस्या खड़ी हो सकती है। पानी को ध्यान से देखने पर पता चलता है कि रंग भी कुछ मैला-सा है।  इस क्षेत्र से एक सीवरेज पाइप भी गुजरती है। हो सकता है पानी की पाइप में सीवरेज का गंदा पानी मिल गया हो। लोगों को पीने के पानी के लिए इसी पाइप-लाइन का सहारा लेना पड़ता है। बीमारों की निरंतर बढ़ती संख्या हम लोगों में अत्यंत चिंता का कारण बना हुआ है। 

अतः, दिल्ली सरकार तथा पानी-बोर्ड के स्थानीय अधिकारियों से मेरा आग्रह है कि वे हमारे क्षेत्र की पानी तथा पाइप-लाइन की शीघ्र जांच करवाएँ एवं उचित व्यवस्था लें।   

मुझे उम्मीद है कि समस्या की गंभीरता को ध्यान में रखते हुए इसका समाधान सरकार शीघ्र-से-शीघ्र निकालेगी।

धन्यवाद सहित।  
भवदीय,
सागरिका साक्षी
पता
क, ख, ग  
ब्लॉक 'ए' - सुभाष मार्ग 
विकासपूरी 
नयी दिल्ली

दिनांक -  १२ फरवरी, २०१९  

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Hindi Essays and Paragraphs for School, Board Exams | Hindi Nibandh for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and Class 12

Metals and Non-Metals - Cbse Ncert Solutions of Class 10 Science Chapter 3 InText Questions

Metals and Non-metals

Class X, NCERT Solutions of Chapter 3 Science InText Questions


CBSE NCERT Solutions: InText Questions (Page 40)
Question 1: Give an example of a metal which
(i) is a liquid at room temperature.
(ii) can be easily cut with a knife.
(iii) is the best conductor of heat.
(iv) is a poor conductor of heat.
Answer: (i) Mercury.  (ii) Sodium.  (iii) Silver.  (iv) Lead and Mercury.

Question 2: Explain the meanings of malleable and ductile.
Answer:
Malleable: Some metals can be beaten into thin sheets. This property is called malleability and such substances are called malleable. For example gold, silver.
Ductile: Substances that can be drawn into thin wires are called ductile. Most of the metals are ductile.

CBSE NCERT Solutions: InText Questions (Page 46)
Question 3: Why is sodium kept immersed in kerosene oil?
Answer: Sodium is highly reactive on exposure to air at room temperature. It reacts with oxygen and catches fire. It also reacts with water. But, it neither reacts nor dissolves in kerosene. So, in order to protect it sodium is kept under kerosene.

Question 4: Write equations for the reactions of
(i) Iron with steam
(ii) Calcium and potassium with water
Answer:  
https://www.cbsencertsolution.com/2019/02/metals-and-non-metals-cbse-ncert-solutions-of-class-10-science-chapter-3-intext.html






Question 5: Samples of four metals A, B, C and D were taken and added to the following solution one by one. The results obtained have been tabulated as follows:
Metal
Iron (II) sulphate
Copper (II) sulphate
Zinc sulphate
Silver nitrate
A
No reaction
Displacement


B
Displacement

No reaction

C
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
Displacement
D
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction

Use the Table above to answer the following questions about metals A, B, C and D.
(i) Which is the most reactive metal?
(ii) What would you observe if B is added to a solution of Copper (II) sulphate?
(iii) Arrange the metals A, B, C and D in the order of decreasing reactivity.
Answer:  From the above table we obtain the reactivity series as follows:
Zn > B > Fe > A > Cu > C > Ag > D
(i) Metal B is the most reactive metal.
(ii) Displacement reaction.
(iii) Metal B > Metal A > Metal C > Metal D.

Question 6: Which gas is produced when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a reactive metal? Write the chemical reaction when iron reacts with dilute H2SO4.
Answer: Hydrogen gas is evolved along with salt of the metal. Equation for the chemical reaction that will take place between iron and dil. H2SO4 is -
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Question 7: What would you observe when zinc is added to a solution of iron(II) sulphate? Write the chemical reaction that takes place.
Answer:  Since, zinc is more reactive than iron. So, it will displace iron from iron(II) sulphate. The equation will be as follows:
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CBSE NCERT Solutions: InText Questions (Page 49)
Question 8: (i) Write the electron-dot structures for sodium, oxygen and magnesium.
(ii) Show the formation of Na2O and MgO by transfer of electrons.
(iii) What are the ions present in these compounds?
Answer: (i)
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(ii)
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(iii)
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Question 9: Why do Ionic compounds have high melting points?
Answer: The molecules of Ionic compounds are bounded by strong electrostatic force of attraction between the ions. Hence, it requires a lot of energy to overcome these forces and so Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.

CBSE NCERT Solutions: InText Questions (Page 53)
Question 10: Define the following terms.
(i) Mineral (ii) Ore (iii) Gangue
Answer: (i) Mineral - The elements or compounds which occur naturally in the earth's crust are known as minerals.
(ii) Ore - At some places, minerals contain a very high percentage of a particular metal and the metal can be profitably extracted from it. These minerals are called ores.
(iii) Gangue - Ores mined from the earth are usually contaminated with large amounts of impurities such as soil, sand, etc, called gangue.

Question 11: Name two metals which are found in nature in the free state.
Answer: Gold, Platinum.

Question 12: What chemical process is used for obtaining a metal from its oxide?
Answer: The chemical process used for obtaining a metal from its oxide is reduction. The metal oxides are reduced by using a suitable reducing agent like carbon or by a more reactive metal to cause a displacement reaction. For example,




CBSE NCERT Solutions: InText Questions (Page 55)
Question 13: Metallic oxides of zinc, magnesium and copper were heated with the following metals.
Metal
Zinc
Magnesium
Copper
Zinc oxide



Magnesium oxide



Copper oxide




In which cases will you find displacement reactions taking place?
Answer:
Metal
Zinc
Magnesium
Copper
Zinc oxide
No
Yes
No
Magnesium oxide
No
No
No
Copper oxide
Yes
Yes
No

Question 14: Which metals do not corrode easily?
Answer: More reactive a metal, the chances of its corrosion is more. So, metals low in activity series, like gold, silver, etc. do not corrode easily.

Question 15: What are alloys?
Answer: An alloy is a homogenous mixture of two or more metals, or a metal and a non-metal.

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