Bharat Mera Desh Mahan - Hindi Essay, Nibandh, Rachna, Lekh - भारत मेरा देश महान

Bharat Mera Desh Mahan -  भारत मेरा देश महान 

(Hindi Nibandh, Essay & Paragraph in Hindi)
प्राकृतिक सुंदरता
मेरा देश भारत संसार के सारे देशों का सिरमौर है। दुष्यंत और शकुंतला के पुत्र भरत के नाम पर इस देश का नाम 'भारत' पड़ा।  माँ भारती के सिर पर हिमालय मुकुट के समान शोभायमान है। गंगा तथा यमुना इसके गले का हार है। दक्षिण में हिंदमहासागर भारत माता के चरणों को निरंतर धोता रहता है। भूमध्य रेखा के समीप स्थित होने के कारण यहाँ समशीतोष्ण जलवायु पायी जाती है। संसार में केवल भारत ही एक ऐसा देश है जहाँ षडऋतुओं का आगमन होता है। 
https://www.cbsencertsolution.com representative image
“जिसकी सुहानी हर सुबह, हर शाम है; 
हर दर्द वो सह गया, पर आज भी मेरा भारत महान है। “
श्रेष्ठ सभ्यता एवं संस्कृति
भारत की सभ्यता एवं संस्कृति संसार की प्राचीनतम सभ्यताओं में गिनी जाती है। ज्ञान के स्रोत वेदों का प्रादुर्भाव इसी धरती पर हुआ। अपने आदर्श एवं आध्यात्मिक मूल्यों के कारण भारत की संस्कृति एवं सभ्यता आज भी विध्यमान है। हिन्दू, सिख, बौद्ध, जैन आदि धर्मों की जन्मभूमि भारत ही है। भारत श्री राम, कृष्ण, बुद्ध, महावीर, आर्यभट्ट, ज्योतषी तथा गणितज्ञ ब्रह्मगुप्त, नानक, मीरा, तुलसी, कवीर, विवेकानंद, परमहंस रामकृष्ण, गांधीजी, नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस जैसे महापुरुषों की भूमि है। हम सभी धर्मों का सम्मान करते हुए आपस में प्रेमपूर्वक रहे। हमारी इसी विशेषता पर संसार को आश्चर्य है - अनेकता में एकता, विविधता में एकता, भारत की विशेषता। 
धन-संपन्नता
भारत पर प्रकृति की विशेष कृपा है। यहाँ खनिज पदार्थों की भरमार है। अपनी अपार संपदा के कारण ही इस देश को 'सोने की चिड़िया' संज्ञा दी गयी है। 
सबसे बड़ा गणतंत्र
भारत संसार में सबसे बड़ा गणतंत्र है। १५० करोड़ लोगों की भावनाओं का आदर करते हुए सरकार चलाना किसी करिश्मा से काम नहीं, जो भारत में ही संभव है। अलग-अलग भाषा, अलग-अलग खान-पान अलग-अलग धर्म परन्तु संविधान और क़ानून एक।  
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ज्ञान में अग्रणी
हमारा देश 'विश्व गुरु' रहा है। यहाँ की कला, ज्ञान-विज्ञान, ज्योतिष, आयुर्वेद संसार के प्रकाशदाता रहे हैं।इस देश में सी.वी. रमण, जगदीश चंद्र बसु, श्रीनिवास रामानुजन, अब्दुल कलाम जैसे कई प्रमुख वैज्ञानिक हुए। हमारे कई अंतराष्ट्रीय स्तर के प्रतिष्ठित शैक्षिक तथा अनुसंधान संगठनों ने भौतिकी विज्ञान, चिकित्सा विज्ञान, खगोलीय विज्ञान, सभी में अपना महत्वपूर्ण योगदान दिया है और मेरे देश का नाम रोशन किया है।  हमने बहुमुखी कर चुके हैं। विशेषतः उद्योग और विज्ञान में भारत आज विश्व का अग्रणी देश बन गया है। हमने पृथ्वी, अग्नि, नाग, त्रिशूल, मंगलयान, चंद्रयान आदि के सफल परीक्षण किए हैं। मंगल ग्रह पर पहला परीक्षण में सफलता प्राप्त करने वाला भारत विश्व का पहला ऐसा राष्ट्र बन गया है। चंद्रमा की धरती पर पानी का आविस्कार करने में भी भारत का महत्वपूर्ण योगदान रहा है। भारतीय कंपनियों ने एशिया, यूरोप तथा अन्य महादेशों के अनेक कंपनियों का अधिग्रहण करने के उपरांत उनके प्रबंधन और काम-काज को सँवर कर अपनी पटुता सिद्ध कर चुके हैं। कंप्यूटर और तकनीकी ज्ञान में तो भारतीय संस्थाओं का दुनिया भर में दबदबा कायम है।
उपसंहार
इतिहास गवाह है कि आवश्यकता पड़ने पर देश की अखंडता एवं एकता के लिए भारतवासी अपने प्राणों की बाजी लगाने में भी पीछे नहीं रहे। यही मेरा और मेरे सपनों का भारत है। यही मेरी मातृभूमि है जिस पर  हम अपने सर्वस्व बलिदान कर सकते हैं और गर्व से कह सकते हैं कि -
'मेरा देश महान'
'Bharat Mera Desh Mahaan'

          

CBSE Guide with solutions of additional CBSE Guess questions for Chapter 7, Control and Coordination

Class 10 Science - Control and Coordination

CBSE Guide | Solved CBSE Guess Questions | CBSE Hots

Question 1: Which part of the brain gives rise to spinal cord?
Answer: Medulla oblongeta.

Question 2: What are the names of future shoots and future roots in a germinating seed?
Answer: Plumule and Radicle respectively.

Question 3: Which group of multi-cellular animals do not possess neurons?
Answer: Sponges.

Question 4: What are motor neurons?
Answer: Motor neurons transmit messages from the brain to the muscles and glands.

Question 5: Name the systems in animals which help in the process of control and coordination.
Answer: (i) Nervous System.
              (ii) Hormonal (Endocrine) System.

Question 6: Name the largest cell in the human body.
Answer: Nerve cell or neuron.

Question 7: Name the male and female sex hormones. Name the gland that secrets these hormones.
Or
Name the hormones secrets at puberty males and females.
Answer: Male sex hormone is Testosterone and female sex hormone is Oestrogen. These hormones are secreted by the pituitary gland.

Question 8: What is tropism?
Answer: Directional growth of a plant, or part of a plant, in response to an extrenal stimulus such as gravity or light is termed as tropism.

Question 9: Define the terms Geotropism, Hydrotropism, Phototropism and Chemotropism with examples.
Answer: For answer visit: 

Question 10: How do animal muscles move in order to perform an action or movement?
Answer: When a nerve impulse reaches the muscle, muscle cell changes its shape and shortens. The muscle cells have special proteins, which in response to nervous electrical impulses change their shape and their arrangement in the muscle cell. The new arrangement of proteins makes the muscle cells shorter resulting in the contraction of muscles.


Question 11: How are the animal movements different from that of the plant movements?
Answer: Animals have a nervous system for coordinating and controlling the body movements. Plants do not have any nervous system and muscles. In plants, the movements are of two types: growth dependent and independent of growth. Movements which are independent of growth are controlled by turgidity of cells which occur as a result of a change in osmotic pressure.

Question 12: (a) Define nastic movement. (b) What type of coordination is present in plants?
Answer:
(a) Nastic movements are non-directional responses to stimuli (eg., temperature, humidity, light). The movement can be due to changes in turgor pressure or changes in growth. Nastic movements differ from tropic movements in that the direction of tropic responses depends on the direction of the stimulus, whereas the direction of nastic movement is independent of stimulus.
(b) In plants there is only chemical coordination.

Question 13: Which is the largest endocrine gland?
Answer: Largest endocrine glands are thyroid gland.

Question 14: Name the master endocrine gland of human body.
Answer: The master endocrine gland is one which controls other endocrine glands. Pituitary gland is the master endocrine gland.

Question 15: Name the fluid that protects the brain from mechanical shocks.
Answer: The fluid that protects the brain from mechanical shock is cerebro spinal flu.

Question 16: Give four examples of simple human reflexes.
Answer:
(i) Knee-jerk reflex in which the leg is involuntarily extended forward as a result of a sharp tap below the knee-cap in a relaxed (freely hanging) leg.
(ii) Closing of the eyelids when an object suddenly approaches the eye or when a strong beam of light is flashed across.
(iii) Withdrawal of the hand on pricking a pin or a thorn.
(iv) Movement of the diaphragm.

Question 17: What are the main divisions of nervous system?
Answer:
(i) It is a system of conducting tissues that receives stimulus and transmit it to other parts of the body forming network.
(ii) It is the most important for regulation, control and coordination of body functions.
(iii) Comprises of neurons, nerves and nervous organs.
(iv) Vertebrate nervous system consists of two parts: (a) Central Nervous System (CNS) including brain and spinal cord. (b) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) including cranial, spinal and visceral nerves.
Control and Coordination: Class 10 NCERT Science Related Posts

12th CBSE Math Guide - Relations and Functions, NCERT Solutions of Exercise 1.2

CBSE Guide NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Mathematics   

Chapter 1, relations and functions
Cbse Ncert Solution of XII Math Textbook Exercise 1.2
(Solutions of CBSE Class 12  NCERT Maths Exercise 1.2, Relations and Functions)
Scroll down and click on the Link in between & at the end of Questions to open Solutions (pdf)
Question 1: Show that the function f: R* → R* defined by f(x) = 1/x is one-one and onto, where R* is the set of all non-zero real numbers. Is the result true, if the domain R* is replaced by N with co-domain being same as R*?
Question 2: Check the injectivity and surjectivity of the following functions:
(i) f: N → N given by f(x) = x2
(ii) f: Z → Z given by f(x) = x2
(iii) f: R → R given by f(x) = x2
(iv) f: N → N given by f(x) = x3
(v) f: Z → Z given by f(x) = x3
Question 3: Prove that the Greatest Integer Function f: R R given by f(x) = [x], is neither one - one nor onto, where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.
Class XII CBSE Maths - NCERT Solutions of Relations and Functions Ex 1.2
Question 4: Show that the Modulus Function f: R → R given by, is neither one-one nor onto, where |x| is x, if x is positive or 0 and |x| is − x, if x is negative.
Question 5: Show that the Signum Function f: R → R, given by
is neither one-one nor onto.
Question 6: Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7} and let f = {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)} be a function from A to B. Show that f is one-one.
Question 7: In each of the following cases, state whether the function is one-one, onto or bijective.
Justify your answer.
(i) f: R → R defined by f(x) = 3 − 4x
(ii) f: R → R defined by f(x) = 1 + x2
Question 8: Let A and B be sets. Show that f: A × B B × A such that (a, b) = (b, a) is bijective function.
Relations and Functions - Class 12 Mathematics CBSE Guide NCERT Solutions
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Question 9:
   




Question 10: Let A = R − {3} and B = R − {1}. Consider the function f: A → B defined by


Is f one-one and onto? Justify your answer.
Question 11: Let f: R → R be defined as f(x) = x4. Choose the correct answer.
(A) f is one-one onto
(B) f is many-one onto
(C) f is one-one but not onto
(D) f is neither one-one nor onto
Question 12: Let f: R → R be defined as f(x) = 3x. Choose the correct answer.
(A) f is one-one onto
(B) f is many-one onto
(C) f is one-one but not onto
(D) f is neither one-one nor onto

CBSE Guide and CBSE Notes: Class 10 Control and Coordination - Important Definitions and Study Materials

Class X Science: Chapter 7, Control and Coordination
CBSE Notes | CBSE Guide | Important Terms & Definitions
Geotropism
The upward and downward growth of shoots and roots, respectively in response to the gravity of the earth is termed as Geotropism. Example - roots are positively geotropic while shoots are negatively geotropic.

Hydrotropism
The tendency of plants to grow towards water or moisture is called hydrotropism. Example - roots are positively hydrotropism.

Phototropism
Phototropism is the growth movement of plants in response to light. The shoots of a plant show positive phototropism and the roots of a plant show negative phototropism. Example - the flower head of sunflower is positively phototropic as it moves from east to west along with sun.

Chemotropism
It is the tendency of growth towards some chemical, e.g., growth of pollen tubes towards ovules and some organic substances.

NERVOUS SYSTEM
(i) It is a system of conducting tissues that receives stimulus and transmit it to other parts of the body forming network.
(ii) It is the most important for regulation, control and coordination of body functions.
(iii) Comprises of neurons, nerves and nervous organs.
(iv) Vertebrate nervous system consists of two parts:
(A) Central Nervous System (CNS) including brain and spinal cord.
(B) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) including cranial, spinal and visceral nerves

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
(i) Regulates involuntary actions.
(ii) Controls and coordinates voluntary muscular activities.
(iii) Keeps us inform about the outside world through the sense organs.
(iv) Enables us to think, reason and remember.
(v) Controls all the reflex actions.

RECEPTOR
It is a cell or group of cells specialised to detect a particular stimulus and to initiate the transmission of impulses via the sensory nerves. There are five receptors or sense organs through which the animals receive stimuli. These receptors are:
1. Photoreceptors for light (eyes),
2. Photoreceptors for sounds (ears),
3. Gustatory receptors for taste (tongue),
4. Olfactoreceptors for smell (nose),
5. Thigmo receptors for touch (skin).
The receptors pass information to the brain through neurons.

For other Science Chapters Read: 
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MECHANISM OF REFLEX ACTION
Reflex action involves the following steps:
(i) Receptor organ like skin perceive the stimulus and activates a sensory nerve impulse.
(ii) Sensory organ carries message in the form of sensory impulse to the spinal cord.
(iii) The spinal cord acts as modulator. The neurons of spinal cord transmit the sensory nerve impulse to motor neuron.
(iv) Motor nerve conducts these impulses to the effectors like leg muscles etc.

ADVANTAGES OF REFLEX ACTION
(A) It enables the body to give prompt and appropriate responses to harmful stimuli and thus, protects our body.
(B) It minimises overloading of brain.

REFLEX ARC
It is the pathway taken by the nerves impulses and responses in a reflex action. For example, impulses from receptor organs like skin to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the effector organs like muscles.
The reflex arc pathway can be shown in a flow chart (Diagram) as below:
https://www.cbsencertsolution.com - flow diagram for Reflex Arc
BRAIN
It is the highest coordinating centre in the body. It is a part of the central nervous system and receives information from various parts of the body and interprets them. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves which arise from the brain and spread throughout the head. The brain is broadly divided into three regions: Fore-brain, Mid-brain and Hind-brain.
CBSE Guide NCERT Solution - Diagram of Human Brain

(A) Fore-brain
1. It is the main thinking part and the largest region of the brain.
2. Includes prominent regions such as - olfactory lobes, thalamus and hypothalamus.
3. Cerebrum is the dome - shaped roof of the brain. Different areas of cerebrum have different functions, such as, sensory areas and motor areas. There are specific regions of cerebrum for each kind of stimulus and response. For example,
(a) Occipital lobe - region for site ie., visual reception.
(b) Temporal lobe - region for hearing ie., auditory reception.
(c) Frontal lobe - region for speech, facial muscle and higher mental activities.
(d) Parietal lobe - region for taste, smell, touch and consciousness.
(e) Olfactory lobes - contain Olfactoreceptors which are the organs of smell.
4. Thalamus is the major coordinating center for sensory and motor signals, while Hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst etc.

(B) Mid-brain
1. Connects the fore-brain to hind-brain.
2. It controls reflex movements of the head, neck and trunk.

(C) Hind-brain
1. Consists of three centres: Cerebellum, Pons and Medulla Oblongeta.
2. Cerebellum lies at the roof of the hind-brain. It controls the coordination of the body movements and posture.
3. Pons lie just above the Medulla and take part in regulating respiration.
4. Medulla Oblongeta lies at the floor of the hind - brain and continues into the spinal cord. It regulates swallowing, coughing, sneezing and vomiting.

FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN
1. Receives information carrying impulses from all the sensory organs of the body.
2. Responds to the impulses by sending instructions to the muscles and glands causing then to function accordingly.
3. Correlates various stimuli from different sense organs and produces the most appropriate response.
4. Controls and coordinates all body activities.
5. Stores information so that behaviour can be modified according to the past experience.

SPINAL CORD
1. It is the cylindrical structure and a part of the CNS.
2. It begins in continuation with Medulla oblongeta and extended downwards.
3. It is enclosed in a bony cage called Vertebral Column. Coccyx is the last bone of the Vertebral Column.
4. Thirty one pairs of Spinal Nerves arise from the spinal cord and spread throughout the body.
5. It acts as a modular of reflex action.

Also Read: Class 10 Cbse Ncert Solution for all major subjects (Chapter Exercises plus CBSE Notes and extra CBSE Hots for 10th NCERT textbooks)

TYPES OF PLANT HORMONES (PHYTOHORMONES)
1. Auxins, 2. Gibberellins, 3. Cytokinins, and 4. Abscisic Acid (ABA).
Auxins
(a) Synthesised at the shoot-tip of the plant body.
(b) Promotes cell elongation, root formation, cell division, respiration and physiological processes like protein synthesis, water uptake and proto-plasmic permeability.
(c) Play an important role in development of seedless fruits.

Gibberellins
(a) Stimulate stem elongation, seed germination and flowering.
(b) Maximum concentration of Gibberellins is found in fruits and seeds.

Cytokinins
(a) Are produced in dividing cells throughout the plant.
(b) In mature plants, Cytokinins are produced in the root tips and are transported to shoot tip.
(c) Promote cell division, breaking of seeds, buds and regulates flowing transport.
(d) Promote opening of stomata.

Abscisic Acid (ABA)
(a) It is a growth inhibitor which reverses the growth.
(b) It causes dormancy of seeds, tubers and bulbs.
(c) Promotes closing of stomata and is responsible for the loss of RNA, proteins and chlorophyll.
 Class 10 NCERT Science Chapter 7, Control and Coordination - Related Posts