Class 10 Social History - The Age of Industrialisation | NCERT CBSE Guide with Sample Questions | Cbse Ncert Solutions


Class 10 History CBSE NCERT Solution | CBSE Guide

India and the Contemporary World-II
The Age of Industrialization

Additional CBSE Hot Questions Answers (NCERT Guide)

Question.1: Which raw material played an important role in the process of industrialization? Or, How did cotton play an important role in the process of industrialization? Or, Do you think cotton had an important role during the industrial development? Explain with reasons.

Answer: Cotton played an important role in the process of industrialization. The following points can be cited in support of the above:

1. According to many historians, the first symbol of industrialisation or beginning of a ‘new era’ was cotton. The production of cotton increased substantially in the late 19th century.

2. Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry during 1760s which by 1787, increased to 22 million pounds.

3. This increase in the import of cotton was mainly due to the changes brought in the process of industrialization.

4. All these clearly indicate that the cotton was leading sector and raw material in the firs phase of industrialization up to 1840s, until the iron and steel industry led the way.        

Question.2: Which inventions do you think increased the speed of production during industrialization?

Answer: in fact, a series of inventions in the 18th century increased the efficiency of each step of production process e.g. Carding, Twisting and Spinning, and Rolling etc. They increased the output per labour.

Then with setting up of first cotton mill (Richard Arkwright created the first cotton mill), all the processes could be done together under one roof and management. This allowed better supervision over the production process, quality, regulation of labour etc.

Steam engine was a big invention which enhanced the productivity manifold.   

Question.3: Give two examples where modern development has led not to progress but to problems. You may like to think of areas related to environmental issues, nuclear weapons or diseases.


1. Development in Agriculture: Hybrid seeds, urea and chemical manure have led to the problem of soil sterility, more consumption of water and environmental problems.

2. Development in Nuclear Weapons: Modern nuclear weapons are the most destructive because of the radioactive pollution that they spread. The combined capacity of these nuclear weapons present in the world today can blow the world not just once but a number of times.  

Question.4: Which city of England became the “finishing center” ?

Answer: London, the capital of England. It became the finishing center as goods from all over England were brought here to be finished.

Question.5: Why did merchants choose countryside for production of clothes rather than town?

Answer: The merchants choose countryside for production of clothes rather than town because a number of reasons as given below -

a. During 17th and 18th centuries, there existed urban crafts and trade guilds in the towns of England.

b. These guilds posed difficulties for expanded production within towns.

c. They not only controlled production but also trained crafts people, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into this trade.

d. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.

It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So, they turned to the countryside.       

Question.6: In the mid-19th century Britain, “handmade products were produced more than the machine products.” Why?  

Answer: The production of handmade products was higher than the machine products in the mid-19th century in Britain because of the following reasons:

1. Handmade products had larger range than the machine made products.

2. Machines produced only uniform or standardized designs or goods for mass people. The demand was for goods with intricate designs and shapes, which required human skills and not the mechanical technology.

3. In Victorian age in Britain, the upper classes, the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie preferred things produced manually.

4. Hand made products wee considered as symbol of refinement and class.

5. They were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed.  

10th History - CBSE Guess and Guide Questions Answers | Cbse Ncert Solution

Question.7: Who in Britain preferred handmade products and why?

Answer: Refer to the answer of Q.No.6 above.

Question.8: What were the dynamic industries in England at the time of Industrialization?

Answer: At the time of Industrialization in England the most dynamic industries were Cotton and Metals.

Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialization up to 1840s. After that iron and steel industry led the way. With the expansion of railways in England from 1840s and in the colonies from 1860s, the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873 Britain was exporting iron and steel of double the value of its cotton export.    

Question.9: Name some inventions that helped the growth of textile industry.

Answer: (i) Spinning Jenny by Hargreaves in 1764. This machine speeded up the spinning and also reduced the need of labour. (ii) Flying Shuttle invented by John Key. (iii) Mule invented by Crompton. This was a hybrid of Spinning Jenny.  

Question.10: Answer the following questions -

(a) What are the reasons that led to the clashes between the weavers and gomasthas?

(b) Do you think that industrialization mean only the growth of factory industries? Or, Do you agree with the statement that Industrialization did not mean the growth of only factory industries? Give reasons in support of your answer.


(a) Gomasthas were the paid servants appointed by the East India Company to supervise the job of weavers, examine the quality of cloth, collect supplies etc. on behalf of the company. Earlier before this new system, the supply merchants often lived within the weaving villages and shared a close relationship with the weavers, looking after their needs and other help etc. But these gomasthas were outsiders with no long term social link with the weavers or the village. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons. They often punished weavers for a delay in supply etc. Gomasthas even used to beat the weavers and flog them. On the other hand the price that the weavers received from the company was miserably low and also they could not sell their clothes to other traders at a better price. The loans given to the weavers by the gomasthas often tied them to the Company.

These were the reasons for bad relations between gomasthas and the weavers which sometimes, led to clashes between them.

(b) No, I do not think that it will be correct to say that Industrialization did not mean the growth of only factory industries.

The reasons we find that although the technological changes happened with industrialization, but these changes occurred very slowly. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape because of so many reasons. The fact is the new industries mostly driven by factories or machines could not easily displace the traditional industries. Even at the end of 19th century, less than 20% of total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors. A large portion of output was produced not within factories, but by outside domestic units.        

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