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The Delhi Sultans
Chapter 3, Class 7 NCERT History Our Pasts II
NCERT Answers (NCERT Solutions) of 7th History Chapter 3 Exercise Questions
Question 1: Which ruler first established his or her capital at Delhi?
Answer: Anangpal of Tomara Rajput dynasty established his capital at Delhi.
Question 2: What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans?
Answer: Persian was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
Question 3: In whose reign did the Sultanate reach its farthest extent?
Answer: In the reign of Alauddin the Sultanate reached its farthest extent.
Question 4: From which country did Ibn Battuta travel to India?
Answer: From Morocco in Africa.
Question 5: According to the "Circle of Justice", why was it important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind?
Answer: It is important for military commanders to keep the interest of the peasantry in mind because a king cannot survive without paying salaries. Salaries came from the the revenue (taxes) collected from peasants. But peasants can pay revenue only when they are happy. This could happen only when the king promotes justice and honest governance.
Question 6: What is meant by the "internal" and "external" frontiers of the Sultanate?
Internal Frontier - It is the hinterland of the garrison town.
External Frontier - These are the areas beyond the hinterland of the garrison town.
Question 7: What are the steps taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties? Why do you think they may have wanted to defy the orders of the Sultans?
Answer: Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue collected by th muqtis. Care was taken that the muqtis collected only the taxes prescribed by the state and not more than that. It was also ensured that he kept the required number of soldiers and paid them from the revenues collected.
The muqtis may have wanted to defy the orders of the Sultans because of tough restrictions imposed on them. Control over muqtis was not effective if their offices were not inheritable and if they were assigned iqtas for a short period of time before being shifted.
Question 8: What was the impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate?
Answer: The Mongols under Chenghiz Khan invaded Transoxiana in Northeast Iran in 1219 and the Delhi Sultanate started to face their attacks soon after this. Mongol attacks on Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early years of Muhammad Tughluq's rule. Some of the impacts of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate were -
- Mobilizing a large army in Delhi which posed administrative challenge.
- Construction of a new garrison town at Siri for soldiers by Alauddin Khalji.
- Imposition of new taxes.
- Shifting of residents of Delhi to Daulatabad in the south and covering Delhi into a garrison town by Muhammad Tughluq.
- Payment of soldiers in cash and withdrawal of token currency.
- Disbanding of the army.
The Delhi Sultans - Further Study