Contemporary India II | Class 10, MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES | Ncert (Cbse) Geography Guide | Extra Questions


Class 10 Ncert Cbse Social Science (Geography)
Contemporary India Part - II
  Extra Important (Sample) Questions
Q.1: How can industries be classified on the basis of source of raw materials used?
Solution: (i) Agro-based such as cotton, wool, jute, silk-textile, sugar, tea, edible oil etc. (ii) Mineral-based such as, iron and steel, cement, aluminium, petrochemicals etc. 
Q.2: Explain how agriculture and industry move hand in hand.
Solution: Contribution of agriculture to industry:
(i) Agriculture provides raw material to industry e.g. jute, cotton, sugarcane etc.
(ii) It also acts as source of capital formation which can be utilized in industry.
(iii) It provides food to the industrial workers.
(iv) It provides good market to the industrial product.
(v) It also decreases pressure on industry.
Contribution of industry to agriculture:
(i) Industry provides inputs to the agriculture e.g. fertilizers, pesticides, tractors etc.
(ii) It provides infrastructural facilities.
(iii) It can absorb surplus labourers and workers of agriculture to reduce pressure on agriculture.  
(iv) It also increases the market value of agricultural products.
Thus, development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only assisted agriculturists in increasing their production but also made the production process very efficient. From the above, we can conclude that agriculture and industry move hand in hand.  
Q.3: What is importance of the manufacturing industries?
Solution: Manufacturing industries are considered as the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular mainly because –
1. Employment generation: Manufacturing industries are the main source of employment for large number of skilled as well as unskilled workers.
2. Foreign exchange: Export of manufactured goods brings foreign exchange to India.
3. Reduction of pressure on land: Manufacturing industries produces products of our daily needs and also reduce pressure on agricultural sector for employment.
4. Removal of economic problems: Industrial development is a precondition for removal of economic problems like, poverty, unemployment and economic inequality. It also helps in bringing down regional disparities of by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.  
Q.4: “Industrialization and Urbanization go hand in hand”. Explain.  
Solution: After an industrial activity starts, urbanization follows automatically. Sometimes, industries are located near the cities Thus, industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand because –
(i) Cities provide market and various other services like banking, insurance, transportation, medical and schooling facilities, labour, and so on to the industries.
(ii) Industrial workers and other employees need housing and other facilities. The provision of these facilities can convert a small town into big cities. 
Q.5: Which factors are responsible for the decentralization of cotton textile mills in India?
Solution: (a) Cotton textile have a very high demand throughout the country.
(b) Major inputs like banking, electricity and transportation are available in almost every part of the country.
(c) Textile industry is a labour intensive industry and labour is easily available in India.
(d) Textile industry requires less technological inputs and can be carried out using simple tools and techniques.    
Q.6: What is ‘large scale’ and ‘small scale’ industries? Give examples.
Solution: Those industries that employ large number of workers in each unit and having large production level are known as large industries e.g. cotton textile industry.
The industry that employs small number of workers in each unit and having small production level is known as small scale industry e.g. readymade garment industry. 
Q.7: What is the importance of Jute industry?
Solution: 1. Employment : The jute industry supports 2.61 lakh workers directly and another 40 lakh small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and Mesta. 
2. Products : Jute industry providesproducts of daily use like jute bags, ropes, mats etc.
3. Foreign exchange : Jute products have a good export market by which we can earn good amount of foreign exchange.
4. Promotion of small scale industries : Many products of jute industry are manufactured in cottage and small scale industries. Thus, it promotes decentralization of industries.  
Q.8: Mention different factors affecting the location of industries.
Solution: The factors affecting the location of industries are:
(a) Availability of raw material (b) Availability of cheap labour (c) Availability of easy capital (d) Availability of cheap and abundant power supply (e) Nearness to the market (f) Government policies (g) Availability of transport facilities
Location of an industry has to be based on where all the above factors are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.
Q.9: Why does textile industry occupy a unique place in the Indian economy?
Solution: The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy, because:
(a) Textile industry contributes significantly to the country’s industrial production (14 per cent).
(b) Employment generation is very high (35 million persons directly — the second largest after agriculture).
(c) This industry is high foreign exchange earning potential (about 24.6 per cent).
(d) It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP.
(e) Textile industry is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.
Q.10: Why has the Chhotanagpur plateau region maximum concentration of iron and steel industries?
Solution: Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry. These include:
(a) low cost of iron ore (b) Availability of high grade raw materials in this region (c) Availability of cheap labour (d) Vast growth potential in the home market (e) Availability of coal within a short distance (f) Nearness to the port (Kolkata). 
Q.11: Why were cotton textile industries mainly concentrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years?
Solution: The cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Several other factors are:
(a) Availability of raw cotton (b) Availability of market (c) Transport including accessible port facilities (d) Cheap labour from the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and Ahmedabad (e) Favorable moist climate.
Q.12: Classify industries on the basis of ownership.
Solution: On the basis of ownership, industries can be classified as :
Public Sector Industries: owned and operated by government agencies e.g. BHEL, SAIL, HAL, ONGC etc.
Private Sector Industries: owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals e.g. TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Tata Motors, Tata Steel etc.
Joint Sector Industries: which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals e.g. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector.
Cooperative Sector Industries: owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately such as the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala etc.
Q.13: What are the major problems of cotton textile industry in India?
Solution: The various problems associated with cotton textile industry in India are –
(1) lack of good quality long, staple cotton.
(2) erratic power supply
(3) out dated machinery and technology
(4) low output of workers
(5) stiff international competition. 
Contemporary India II – Manufacturing Industries: Further study

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