Nationalism in India - Class X, History India and the Contemporary World II - NCERT Solutions for Intext Questions and more

 

Class X, CBSE History (Social Science)
Chapter III. Events and Processes: Nationalism in India
NCERT History Textbook (India and the Contemporary World - II)

NCERT Solutions | In-Text Questions Answers

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Question: What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said satyagraha is active resistance ?   
Answer: Satyagraha is not physical force. Satyagraha does not mean to inflict pain on the adversary rather it is the source of soul. Satyagraha is a pure soul-force. Truth is the substance of soul and so, it is the substance of Satyagraha. It does not mean destruction but it means to clear the minds of adversaries and convert destructive thoughts into constructive by showing them love, compassion and truth. Without being destructive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.    

Question: If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have represented Gandhiji’s call for swaraj ? Give reasons for your response.  
Answer: I would have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj in a positive non-violent manner. His way of truth and non-violence was the most potent way to attend swaraj, therefore, I would have followed him.

Question: Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement ?  
Answer: The various classes and groups of Indians participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement due to their own, limited motives. To them, “Swaraj” meant something they craved for. For example:
1. To business men, swaraj meant a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.      
2. Similarly to rich peasant classes, swaraj was a struggle against high land revenue.
3. Women took swaraj as the attainment of elevated status and equality with men in Indian society.
4. Poor peasants considered swaraj as the time when they would have their own land, would not have to pay rents or do beggar. 
5. Working class dreamt for higher wages and excellent working conditions.
Hence, swaraj was different for different classes and groups of Indians.

Question: Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism ? Can you define communalism in a different way ?  
Answer: No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism as it was based upon the thought that India is a land of racial and religious variety. That does not really mean that India needed any type of communal settlement or division on the basis of community.
According to me, communalism believes in the government of a specific community. It does not have any element of Nation in it, which was the motive of nationalist struggle for India’s freedom.    
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