Events and Processes: Nationalism in India | Class X NCERT (CBSE) Social Science (History) | India and the Contemporary World - II | NCERT Textbook Exercise Solutions


Class 10, Ncert Cbse Social Science (History)
Chapter III. Events and Processes: Nationalism in India
NCERT History (India and the Contemporary World - II)
NCERT Solutions of Textbook Exercise Questions
Q.1: Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement ?
(b) How did the First World War help in the growth of National Movement in India ?
(c) Why were Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?
(d) Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ?  
(a) People were already struggling against the colonial rule in India. Nationalist sentiments surged during the process of their struggle against the colonial government. The sense of oppression and exploitation became a common cause for bringing the people from different classes, communities and castes together to fight against the colonial rule. This resulted in the growth of nationalism in the colonies. Hence, anti-colonial movement became a breeding ground for the growth of nationalism in all colonies.
(b) During the First World War people were recruited unwillingly by the British army from rural areas in India. To meet the defense expenditure, colonial government imposed high custom duties, income taxes etc. on Indians. Villagers were forced to do beggar for the construction of roads. Also, the failure of crops in many parts of India during this period led to acute food shortages and price rise. All this resulted in extreme hardship for the common people, caused anger and the spread of anti-British and nationalist feelings among Indians.
(c) The Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act because of the following reasons:
1. Despite the united opposition of the Indian members, the Imperial Legislative Council hurriedly passed this Act.
2. This Act provided the colonial government with the autocratic powers to repress the political activities of Indians.
3. Under this Act the political prisoners could be detained for two years without any trial.
(d) Gandhiji withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 due to the violent activities of Indian people at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur. Gandhiji felt that the people were not yet ready for a mass struggle, and they needed more time and training to understand how to carry out a non-violent demonstration successfully.          
Q.2: What is meant by the idea Satyagraha?
Ans: Satyagraha was a novel method of mass agitation. The idea of Satyagraha emphasized upon the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true and if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.   
Through non-violent methods a Satyagraha could appeal the conscience of the oppressor by the power of truth, which was bound to win.
Q.3: Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
On 13th April 1919, a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh – some to protest against the British government’s repressive measures, others to attend the annual Baishakhi Fair. These people were unaware of the imposition of Marshal Law in the city. General Dyer, the Commander, blocked the exit points from the Bagh and opened fire upon the innocent citizens. Dyer’s intention was to produce a ‘moral effect’ and terrorize satyagrahis. Hundreds of innocent people including women and children were killed and wounded due to this indiscriminate firing by the British soldiers, which ultimately led to nation-wide outrage. Jallianwala Bagh incident was the most brutal incident in the History of India.
(b) The Simon Commission
The Simon Commission was constituted by the Tory Government in Britain, under Sir John Simon. The objective of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest some constitutional changes. But nationalists in India opposed the Commission because it had not a single Indian member. Therefore, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”. All parties, including Congress and the Muslim league, participated in the demonstrations.  
Q.4: Compare the images Bharat Mata in this Chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Ans: (i) The image of Germania was the symbol of German nation whereas; the image of Bharat Mata was the symbol of Indian nation.
(ii) Both images inspired nationalists who worked very hard to unify their respective countries and to attain a liberal nation.
(iii) The image of Bharat Mata is different from that of Germania in the sense that former reflects the religious basis of its making.
(iv) The image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore is bestowed with learning, food, clothing and some ascetic quality also. Another painting of Bharat Mata in which we find Mata holding Trishul and standing beside a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. This image appears to be more akin to the image of Germania where she holds a sword and a shield.   
Q.5: List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.  
Ans: The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were:
(a) Middle class people of the society comprising students, teachers, lawyers etc.
(b) Different political parties except the Justice Party of Madras.
(c) Peasants of Awadh led by Baba Ramchandra.
(d) Plantation workers of Assam.
(e) Tribals of Andhra Pradesh led by Alluri Sitaram Raju.
Given below are brief discussions about some of the social groups which show why they joined the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Peasants of Awadh - The conditions of Peasants of Awadh were very bad. They did not have their own land and had to cultivate the landlord’s fields. The landlords demanded high rents and also forced them to do free labour. If these peasants failed to pay the rent in time they were thrown out of their lands as well as the crops grown by them. Often they were trapped into debt cycle. Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi, led these poor peasants movement and established ‘Oudh Kisan Sabha’ in 1920. This movement later merged with the Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement.
Tribals of Andhra Pradesh - The tribals of AP revolted against the policy of British Government to enclose the large forests as a result of which they were deprived of their livelihood and traditional rights. Under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju, who firmly believed in Gandhi except his non-violent methods of attaining freedom, tribals rebelled against the British Government. They joined the Non-Cooperation Movement but violently. They hoped that this could only end the British rule and bring Gandhi Raj when they will be able to regain their lost grounds.    
Plantation Workers - The British government after enacting the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 restricted the plantation workers of Assam from leaving the tea gardens without permission. Plantation workers wanted freedom to move about and retain links with the villages they came from. When they heard about the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of them defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj would come and everyone would be given land in their own villages.     
Q.6: Discuss the salt march to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Ans: Gandhiji on January 31st 1930 sent a letter to then Viceroy Irwin, containing eleven most essential demands. Some of these were of general interests while, others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants.
The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within the Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign. But the most unusual of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. Salt was one of the essential food items consumed by the rich and the poor alike. According to Gandhiji the tax on the salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
By the successful Dandi March, Gandhiji not only let down the British government in his own way of satyagraha, but also set forth an example before the nation how the oppressor could be confronted through non-violent methods. The Salt March proved to be the most significant symbol of resistance against colonialism and marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.         
Q.7: Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates ?
Ans: Political leaders represented different classes and communities of Indian society. They differed sharply over the question of separate electorates mainly because of the differences in their opinions. These leaders wanted to uplift the status of their followers by securing some special political rights through separate electorates for them. But Congress Party, especially Gandhiji was of the opinion that separate would further slow down the freedom movement and also adversely affect the unity of the country. He feared that such a system of separate electorates would give rise to communalism and divide the country into numerous fragments.  

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