CBSE Board Class 9
Ncert Solutions for Geography | Contemporary India - I
Chapter-5, Natural VEGETATION and WILD LIFE
Solutions (Notes) for Sample Questions on this Chapter
1. Tropical Evergreen Forests:
· Found in the areas having heavy rainfall, more than 200 cm with short or no dry season. Warm and wet throughout the year.
· Luxuriant vegetation comprising trees, shrubs, and creepers giving a multilayered structure.
· Trees don’t shed leaves at a time appear green all the year.
· The thick canopies don’t allow the sunlight to penetrate the forests even during the daytime.
Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber and Cinchona.
Elephant, Monkey, One-horned rhinoceros, Deer, different types of Birds, Reptiles, Bats, Scorpions etc.
Rainy parts of Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, upper parts of Assam, Tamil Nadu Coast, some parts of Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa
2. Tropical Deciduous Forest or Monsoon Forest:
· Most wide spread vegetation type in India.
· Rainfall between 200 - 70 cm.
· These regions experiences seasonal changes.
· Trees shed their leaves in the dry season and conserve water.
· On the basis of the availability of water these forests are further are subdivided into moist and dry deciduous.
· Commercially significant hardwood trees are found here.
· Teak is the most dominant species. Others are Bamboos, Sal, Shisham, Sandalwood, Khair, Neem, Kusum etc.
Lion, Tiger, Pig, Elephant, Deer, variety of Birds, Lizards, Snakes and Insects etc.
Northeastern states, Foothills of Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa, Chhattisgarh, rainier parts of Peninsular Plateaus, eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Plains of Bihar and U.P.
3. Montane Forests:
The type of vegetation found at the high altitudes is Montane Forest. The following are the descriptions of Montane Forests -
· Found at high altitudes in mountainous areas.
· There is a succession of natural vegetation belts as per altitude:
o 1000m - 2000m: Wet temperate forests. Evergreen broad leaf trees like oaks and chestnuts predominate.
o 1500m - 3000m: Temperate forest containing coniferous trees like Pine, Deodar, Silver Fir, Spruce and Cedar. Cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas.
o 3000m - 3600m: Temperate Grasslands.
o Above 3600m: Alpine Vegetation. Silver Fir, Junipers, Pines and Birches are common. At even higher altitudes and with the approach of the snow line the vegetation changes from shrubs and scrubs to alpine and Grasslands. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs grow during the very short summer which is called Tundra type of Vegetation.
The common animals found in these forests are Kashmir Stag, Spotted Deer, Wild Sheep, Antelope, Jack Rabbit, Snow Leopard, Yak, Squirrels, Red Panda, Sheep and Goats with thick hair etc.
4. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs:
· Annual rainfall less than 70 cm.
· Trees are short, scattered with long roots penetrating deep into the soil in order to get moisture.
· The stems are succulent to conserve water.
· Leaves are thick and small to minimize evaporation.
· Arid or Semi-arid climate.
Acacia (Babool), Cactus, Palms, Euphorbia and shrubs etc.
Rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, wild asses, horses, camels.
North-western parts of India including semi-arid areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, UP and Haryana.
5. Mangrove Forests (The Tidal Forests):
Most important vegetation in the areas near the coasts influenced by tides.
· Dense mangroves with roots of plants submerged under water are common.
· Sundari trees of Ganga-Brahmaputra delta is well-known mangrove trees. After the name of which some parts of the forests of these deltas are known as Sunderban.
· Palm, Coconut, Keora, Agar are some other trees.
The famous Royal Bengal Tiger, Crocodiles, Gharials, Turtles and Snakes etc.
The deltas of Ganga, the Brahmaputra, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kavery are covered by such vegetation.
Class IX Social Science (Geography) | Natural Vegetation and Wild Life | Chapter - 5, Contemporary India-I | NCERT (CBSE) Textbook Exercise Solution [Read]