CBSE Xth History (Social Science) - NCERT Answers
India and the Contemporary World-II (The Age of Industrialisation)
Q.1: Explain the following:
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of eighteenth century.
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
Ans: (a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny because it could spin many spindles with one wheel. This increased productivity and led to decrease in employment of women for spinning. Angry women therefore, attacked the machine.
(b) The trade and commerce guild controlled the market, raw materials, employees, and also production of goods in the towns. This created problems for merchants who wanted to increase production by employing more men. Therefore, they turned to peasants and artisans who lived in villages.
(c) By the end of 18th century the port of Surat declined mainly because of the growing power of the European Companies in India. These European Companies gradually gained power and started to control sea-trade in India. They secured a variety of concessions which they obtained from local courts and by gaining monopoly rights to trade. These companies did not want to use the old ports of Surat, Masulipatnam, and Hooghly etc. In stead they developed the port of Bombay.
(d) As the East India Company established political power in India, it wanted to further assert a monopoly right to cotton textile silk trade. The Company’s objective was to develop a system of management and direct control over the weavers so that it could eliminate competition over costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. They did this through a series of steps. So, with this aim they appointed ‘gomasthas’ as their paid servants to supervise weavers, ensure timely supplies, examine the quality of cloth and also advanced loans to weavers.
Q.2: Write True or False against each statement.
(a) At the end of 19th century, 80% of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the 18th century.
(c) The American civil war resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
(d) The introduction of fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Ans: (a) F (b) T (c) F (d) T
Q.3: Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Ans: ‘Proto’ means the first or early form of something. By proto-industrialisation historians refer to the period in which Europe and England produced goods for the international market, on a large scale, even before there were factories. Thus, proto-industrialisation is meant for the phase of industrialisation when handmade products were produced for the industrial market.
Q.4: Why did some industrialists in 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Ans: Some industrialists in 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines due to the following reasons:
a. Machines were costly, ineffective, difficult to repair, and needed huge capital investments.
b. Labour was available at low wages at that period of time.
c. In seasonal industries only seasonal labour was required.
d. Market demands of variety of designs and colour and specific type could not be fulfilled by machine made clothes. Intricate designs and colours could be done by human-skills only.
e. In Victorian age, the aristocrats and other upper class people preferred articles made by hand only.
Q.5: How did East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Ans: After establishing political power in India, the East India Company tried to acquire a monthly right to cotton textile and silk goods trade. It also started to procure regular supplies of these goods from Indian weavers. This could be achieved by tem after taking a series of steps. First, they established their management and a direct control over the weavers by appointing their paid servants called gomasthas. Gomasthas supervised weavers, examined the quality of goods and ensured regular supplies.
Second, the Company prevented weavers from dealing with their buyers by giving them ‘advances’ against purchase orders. Thus, the weavers after taking loans could not sell their cloth to any other trader and had to work under the Company’s gomasthas.
Q.6: Why did industrial production in India increase during First World War?
Ans: India witnessed increased industrial production during the First World War due to following reasons:
(i) British industries became busy in producing and supplying war-needs. Hence, they stopped exporting British goods or clothes for colonial markets like that in India.
(ii) It was a good opportunity for Indian industries to fill in empty Indian markets with their products. It was done so. Therefore, industrial production in India increased.
(iii) Also the British colonial government asked Indian factories to supply the war needs like - jute bags, cloth or army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddle, etc.
(iv) The increased demands of variety of products led to the setting up of new factories and old ones increased their production.
(v) Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours.
These were the various reasons responsible for the boom in the industrial production in India during the First World War.
NCERT Solutions - Social Science (History)
India and the Contemporary World-II, Chapter 5, The Age of Industrialisation | Class 10 CBSE (NCERT) Social Science History | CCE type sample questions [Read]