MySQL revision - Class 12 Computer Informatics Practices - Download Ncert Cbse IP Questions Bank with Answers

MySQL Class 12 CBSE Informatics Practices: IP Questions and Answers

Here we present you CBSE guess and sample questions (download answers in pdf at the end) on Computer Informatics Practices (IP) chapter MySQL revision, a Ncert Cbse Guide important for CBSE Board and other exams - 
MySQL revision - Class 12 Computer Informatics Practices - Download Ncert Cbse IP questions answers
CBSE Class 12 Informatics Practices (IP) 
Question.1: Define Primary Key, Candidate Key,  Alternate Key,  Foreign Key.
Question.2: What is Degree, Cardinality?
Question.3: Difference between CHARM and VARCHAR
Question.4: Name ACID properties (transaction properties)
Question.5: What is SQL?  Name the classification of SQL statements.
Question.6: How would you display tablets in a database?
Question.7:  Which SQL clause is used to restrict the rows returned by a Query?
Question.8: Write MySQL command to display list of existing databases.
Question.9: Which command is used to add a new tuple in a table?
Question.10: Difference between WHERE clause and HAVING clause.

NCERT Guide for Class XII - Informatics Practices (IP)
MySQL Quick Review with Solutions of CBSE IP Questions

Question.11: A Table "TRAINS" has degree 3 and Cardinality 8. What is the number of ray and columns in it?
Question.12: Difference between COUNT (*) and COUNT (column).
Question.13: How would you view constraints, Viewing columns associated in a Relation (table)?
Question.14:What is the difference between Drop Table and Delete?
Question.15: What is the purpose of ORDER By clause?
Question.16: What are the TCL commands?
Question.17: How would you begin a new Transaction?
Question.18: Write a statement to set onto commit to off.
Question.19: How would you delete a column from a table (give syntax).
Question.20: How would you change a data type of a column?

Class 12 Ncert Cbse Guide and Guess for Computer Informatics Practices (IP)

A quick review for the chapter MySQL : CBSE Guess Questions and Answers
Question.21: Which command is used to save the changes permanently in the data base?
Question.22: Which command is used to undo (or) cancel the previous transaction in a database?
Question.23: What is the purpose of SELECT statement?  Give its syntax.
Question.24: Write the operators used in SQL.
Question.25: Neha created a table layer on she realised that there is a need to include CLASS column. Which command she should use to do so? (Table Name is Student)

CBSE Guess for Informatics Practices - Class 12 IP MySQL revision NCERT Guide with Solutions of CBSE Questions important for Board Exams

Question.26: A table named "OFFICE" has 6 rows 10 columns and another table named"STAFF" has 3 rows and 5 columns5.  How many rows ams columns will be there, if we obtain the Cartesian product of these two tables?
Question.27: What are the six relational operations?
Question.28: Write a MySQL command for creating a table EMPSALARY. Whose structure is given below:
Field Name
Data type (size)
Primary Key
Not Null


Question.29: Which command is used to create a new database?
Question.30: Which command in MySQL is used to open a specific database?
Question.31:Which command in MySQL is used to view the structure of a table?
Question.32: What is a NULL value?
Question.33: What is Cartesian Join?
Question.34: What is Equi-Join?
Question.35: Which command is used to modify existing data in a table?
Question.36: Which command is used to delete rows from a table?
Question.37: What are constraints? Give examples.
Question.38: In a database there is a table Cabinet. The data entry operator is not able to insert a null value in a column. What may be the possible reasons?
Question.39: Do the primary key of a table accept null or duplicate values?
Question.40: What is Transaction?
Question.41: What is the purpose of inserting Savepoint?
Question.42: What is the difference between Rollback and Rollback To?

Viva Questions with Answers asked in Class 12 Physics, Chemistry, Biology Practical Examinations and Project Work

Viva Questions with Answers asked in Class 12 Physics, Chemistry, Biology Practical Examinations and Project img
In the practical examination along with experiments you have to face viva voce from the internal / external examiner. It is just to know your depth of knowledge and understanding of the given experiment / project work. Based on your performance you will be credited with the deserving score.
As CBSE releases the date sheet, students get engrossed mostly in preparing for the theoretical examinations. As a result, most of the students skip preparing for their practical examination which is also important part for grabbing overall a good score. In each of these subjects Physics, Chemistry and Biology 30 per cent marks is reserved for their Practical Examinations. That means out of 100 total marks, 30 marks is allotted for Practical Examination. And out the 30 marks of Practical, generally 5-7 marks is kept for viva voce.   

Syllabus for Class 12 Physics and Chemical Practical Examinations

Evaluation scheme Maximum Marks: 30 (Total 30 marks for each Physics and Chemistry)
  • 2 Experiments containing 8 marks each (one from each section, total = 16 marks)
  • Practical Record = 6 marks
  • Project Work = 3 marks
  • Viva on Experiments and Project Work = 5 marks

Syllabus for Class 12 Biology Practical Examination

Evaluation scheme Maximum Marks: 30 (Total 30 marks)
  • One major experiment 5
  • One minor experiment 4
  • Slide preparation 5
  • Spotting 7
  • Practical record + viva voce 4
  • Project record + viva voce 5
The questions asked as well as the circumstance in which a student faces viva voce are different from the theoretical examination so it is always better to prepare for viva voce separately. A student with some prior preparation for viva is definitely going to give him or her more confidence. Besides knowledge, confidence level and body language also play an important role while facing the external taking viva examination.  

Types of Questions asked in Class 12 Viva Voce

Methodology and Principles are frequently asked questions in viva voce hence; you should know the basics of the experiment. There might be the some of the questions based on the experiment you are asked to perform like how the slope is calculated, what is the aim of experiment, what are apparatus required, what are the precautions that need to be taken into account, etc. You should be able to explain how you performed the experiment. How you took the readings. Another important question is about the least count of the measuring instrument.
The level and variety of questions asked in viva voce depends solely on the concerned teacher and the type of experiment given to you and so, there can be plethoras of questions in subjects.
To enable a candidate preparing for Class 12 viva voce examination of Physics, Chemistry and Biology Practical plus Project Work we have given some good number of questions with their answers as under (please click on the links below):

(To be continued . . . visit again!)

CBSE News: Changes in Exam and Grading from Class 6 to 8 in CBSE School

Major changes made by CBSE in the result format and grading system from Class VI to Class VIII

  • Officially the Co-scholastic activities will continue, with the schools certifying their pupils' performances on a3 pint scale: outstanding, very good and fair. But this will have no bearing on the student's overall grade.
  • Only 2 exams per year - Half Yearly Exam and Yearly or Annual Exam.
  • Uniform examination system for all 18688 CBSE-affiliated schools.

Half-yearly Exam
  • A written test of 80 marks covering the syllabus for the first 6 months in each subject.
  • Weightage of 20 marks to periodic assessment by class teacher on academic performance, note book submission, subject-enrichment activities.

Yearly (Annual) Exam
  • 80 - 20 ratio remains same.
  • Class 6: Written test to take in the syllabus for the second 6 months plus 10 per cent of the first 6 months covering significant topics.
  • Class 7: Syllabus for the second half plus 20 percent of the syllabus of the first 6 months. 
  • Class 8: Syllabus for the second half plus 30 percent of the syllabus of the first 6 months.

CBSE News: CBSE bringing change in result format

  • The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has decided to discontinue the practice of mentioning the Class 9 scores while announcing the Class 10 results. The CBSE which has made Clad 10 board exams mandatory from 2018, used to mention the Class 9 performance of students although it was not counted in the overall results. "After due consideration, it has been decided that this year onwards CBSE will not include Class IX results in Gradesheet cum Certificate of Performance of Class X. This provision will be applicable to both board based and school based candidates." a CBSE circular said. 
  • Next change is that CBSE has also decided to discontinue the practice of giving details in the mark sheets of students' performance in co-scholastics areas like projects, assignments, art, music and sports that carried 40% weightage. Henceforth, the concerned school will send the exact grade point score of the students in the co-scholastic areas which will be included in the overall score while announcing the results. 
  • From the next year, the performance in scholastic areas will have 80% weightage. Internal assessments will carry 20% weightage.

Few other changes brought by CBSE recently : 

(Source: The Telegraph)

Sampadkiya Patra - Hindi Editorial Letter - Write a letter in Hindi to the Editor of a Hindi News Paper - संपादकीय पत्र

Editorial Letters in Hindi - Sampadkiya Patra - संपादकीय  पत्र 

चुनाव प्रचार में शहर की दीवारों पर लिखनेपोस्टर चिपकाने की वजह से दीवारों की हालत बड़ी अजीब सी एवं शहर गन्दी दिख रही है। इस समस्या के समाधान हेतु किसी दैनिक समाचार पत्र के सम्पादक को पत्र लिखिए | Write a letter in Hindi to the Editor (संपादक) of a Hindi News Paper on a contemporary subject :

सेवा में, 
मुख्य सम्पादक,
दैनिक जागरण,
बहादुरशाह ज़फर मार्ग,
नई दिल्ली 

विषय: चुनाव प्रचार के चलते दीवाल-लिखण, पोस्टर आदि की समस्या।


मैं अपने पसंदीदा अखबार के द्वारा अपना विचार लोगों तक पहुँचाना चाहता हूँ।
चुनाव के पहले प्रचार हेतु सभी पार्टी एवं प्रत्याशियों द्वारा सरकारी आफिस एवं पूरे शहर की दीवारों, पार्कों इत्यादि पर पेंटिंग एवं पोस्टर लगाये जाते हैं। इस वजह से पूरे शहर की सुन्दरता खराब हो जाती है और शहर गन्दी दिखने लगती है। यह भी एक प्रकार का प्रदूषण या दृश्य-दूषण है जिसका हमारी मानसिकता पर बुरा प्रभाव पड़ सकता है। पैसा और समय की बर्बादी अलग।   

अतः, मैं आपके समाचार पत्र के माध्यम से सरकार से प्रार्थना करना चाहती हूँ कि इन सब पर रोक लगा दी जाए और इसके विरूद्ध कानूनी कार्यवाही की जाए।

मुझे उम्मीद है कि समस्या की गंभीरता को ध्यान में रखते हुए इसका समाधान सरकार शीघ्र-से-शीघ्र निकालेगी।

सागरिका साक्षी
अविनाश कुमार 
११९, ब्लॉक 'ए' - सुभाष मार्ग 
विकास पूरी 
नयी दिल्ली

दिनांक: . . . 

For all types of Hindi letters (hindi patra) visit:  

For all types of Hindi applications (hindi avedan patra) visit: 

For Hindi essays (Hindi Rachna, Nibandh) visit:

Viva Questions Answers for Class 12 Physics Practical Exam and Project on Light, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Class 12 Physics Practical Examination on Light, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Physics Viva question answers for Physics Practical and Project Work [Nos.1-10]

Class 12 Physics Viva Voce Guide

Questions with answers asked in Viva Voce in Class 12 Physics Practical Examinations and Projects important for CBSE Board following NCERT textbooks and other State Board Examinations (Light, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments).

Question.1: Define sign convention.

Question.2: Define a spherical mirror.

Question.3: What is spherical lens?

Question.4: What is ‘Index Error’?  

Question.5: Define spherical aberration.

Question.6: How is spherical aberration is removed?

Question.7: Why is mirror silvered (mercury polished) at the back surface?     

Question.8: What is the principal focus of a lens? 

Question.9: Define ‘Chromatic Aberration’.

Question.10: Do the power of a lens depend upon its aperture?

Question.11: What is angle of deviation?  

Question.12: Tell the factors on which ‘angle of deviation’ depends?

To be continued. (Visit again for more Viva Voce Questions on Physics, Biology, and Chemistry)

Viva Voce Examination Guide for Class 12 Biology Practical Experiments and Project Work

Class 12 Biology Viva Voce Examination (Core Experiments)

Biology question-answers for Practical and Project Work [Nos.14-26]


Class 12 Biology questions with answers asked in Viva Voce in School and Board Practical Examinations and Projects important for CBSE Board following NCERT textbooks, other State Board Examinations

Click for Previous Viva Voce Questions [Nos. 1-13]

Question.14: Who invented the term 'mitosis'?

Question.15: What are the two events of mitosis?

Question.16: Define the term 'pollution'.

Question.17: What is biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)? What does high BOD indicate?   

Question.18:  What is soil?

Question.19: What do you understand by 'soil texture'?

Question.20: What is meant by soil reaction?  

Question.21: What pH range is the best for plant growth?   

Question.22: How are particle pollutants harmful for plants?

Question.23: Which type of soil has very low water holding capacity?

Question.24: Which type of soil has maximum water holding capacity?

Question.25:  What is 'natality'?

Question.26: What is 'population density'?  

 For previous questions click below:

FreeOnline Guide - Class 12 Biology Viva Voce Questions for Practical ExaminationExperiments and Projects [Nos. 1-13] 

 To be continued ... Please visit again for more viva voce questions on Biology, Physics, Chemistry to be published. 

Free Online Guide - Class 12 Biology Viva Voce Questions for Practical Examination Experiments and Projects

Class 12 Biology Viva Voce (Core Experiments)

Questions for Practical Examination and Biology Project (1-13)

Biology Questions with Answers asked in Viva Voce in School and Board Practical Examinations and Projects important for CBSE Board following NCERT textbooks, other State Board Examinations

Question.1: What is “litter”? 

Question.2: What is “tectum”?

Question.3: What is a pollen grain?

Question.4: What is the shape of a pollen grain?

Question.5:  What are enzymes?

Question.6: Define population.

Question.7: What is the chemical nature of the two layers of the wall of pollen grain?

Question.8: Define mitosis.

Question.9: Why is mitosis called somatic cell division?

Question.10: What are pollutants?

Question.11: Which kind of soil is best suited for plant growth?

Question.12: What is humus?

Question.13: What determines the pH of a soil? 

Click  Download / View Answers  of the questions

 For more questions (nos.14 - 26) click on the link below: 

Free Online Guide - Class 12 Biology Viva Voce Questions for Practical Examination Experiments and Projects

To be continued ... Please visit again for more viva voce questions on Biology, Physics, Chemistry to be published.

Essay in Hindi on Mobile Phone and its Importance | Hindi Nibandh Rachna - मोबाइल बिना सब सुना

मोबाइल बिना सब सुना 
Hindi Essay Nibandh Rachana on Mobile Phone and its Importance

मोबाइल फ़ोन मनुष्य के हाथों में चौबीसों घंटो खेलनेवाला एक अत्यंत उपयोगी एवं आकर्षक साधन है। एक नन्ही-सी मशीन जो मनुष्य की जेब से बैठा-बैठा बताता रहता है कि आपका अपना आपसे बात करना चाहता है। अब हमारी इच्छा है कि हम बात करें या न करें, या प्रतीक्षा के लिए कहें।

प्रथम मोबाइल फोन यंत्र का अविष्कार अमरीका के जॉर्ज स्वीगर्ड ने सन १९६९ में किया था। परंतु आधुनिक मोबाइल का अविष्कार एवं सर्वप्रथम उपयोग के लिए अमरीका के डॉक्टर मार्टिन कूपर जाने जाते हैं। उन्होंने सन १९७३ में 'मोटोरोला' नामक संस्था से सर्वप्रथम आधुनिक मोबाइल का निर्माण किया था। भारत में सर्वप्रथम मोबाइल सेवा का प्रारंभ अव्यावसायिक तौर पर सन १९८५ में किया गया था। बाद में अगस्त सन १९९५ से यह सेवा व्यावसायिक तौर पर देश की आम जनता के लिए उपलब्ध कराया गया।

Essay in Hindi on Mobile Phone and its Importance | Hindi Nibandh Rachna - मोबाइल phone images

मोबाइल फोन संचार का माध्यम तो है ही, साथ ही वह घड़ी, टॉर्च, संगणक (Calculator), कैमरा, संस्मारक (Reminder / Memorise), रेडियो, टी.वी., खेल, मनोरंजन आदि की भी भूमिका निभाता है। वास्तव में यह तो जैसे 'अलादीन का चिराग' है। मोबाइल फोन में शक्तिशाली कैमरा लगे हैं जिनके माध्यम से हम संवाद-सहित पूरे दृश्य कैमरा में कैद कर सकते हैं। अँधेरे में वह टॉर्च का काम करता है तो सोते हुए अलार्म घड़ी का। वह हमें महत्वपूर्ण पल याद करानेवाला स्मारक मित्र भी है और कलेंडर भी। गणना से लेकर टाइम-कीपिंग तक का काम मोबाइल फोन द्वारा लिया जा सकता है। आजकल मोबाइल फोन पर इंटरनेट सुविधा प्राप्त हो जाने के कारण कंप्यूटर न रहने पर भी, हम मोबाइल फोन से इंटरनेट सर्फ करके विश्व की तमाम जानकारियाँ कहीं से भी और कभी भी प्राप्त कर सकते हैं। नित्य नए कुछ न कुछ ऐप निकल रहे हैं जिनके सहायता से हम मोबाइल फ़ोन पर बैंकिंग सेवा प्राप्त करने के अलावा एवं अपने बैंक खातों से पैसों का लेन-देन भी कर सकते हैं।  

इतनी सारी सुविधाएँ प्रदान के बावजूद आज का मोबाइल फोन बहुत सस्ता हो गया है। यही कारण है कि भारत जैसा देश में भी अमीर आदमी से लेकर एक गरीब मजदूर तक के पास आज मोबाइल फोन उपलब्ध है। मात्र कुछ रुपयों के बदले में इसके माध्यम से हम देश-विदेश में बातें कर सकते हैं। संदेश भेजना तो लगभग मुफ्त है। कोई व्यक्ति एक साथ सैकड़ों लोगों को कुछ ही मिनटों में संदेश भेज सकता है, वह भी बहुत ही कम मूल्य पर। वह संदेश माध्यम (एस. एम. एस) डाकघर के पोस्टकार्ड से भी सस्ता और विश्वसनीय बन गया है। यहाँ तक कि 'मिस्ड कॉल' के माध्यम से बिना पैसा खर्च किये भी अनेक संदेश लिए-दिए जा सकते हैं।

जैसा कि हर अच्छाई के साथ कुछ बुराइयाँ भी जुड़े होते हैं, वैसे ही मोबाइल फोन के भी कई अभिशाप हैं। यह मनुष्य को चौबीसों घंटे व्यस्त रखता है। दिन भर विज्ञापन-कंपनियों के विज्ञापन हमें परेशान करते रहते हैं। अनावश्यक संदेशों का आना और उसे मिटाना भी अलग से एक काम है जिसके कारण जीवन का कुछ समय व्यर्थ ही बर्बाद हो जाता है। असामाजिक तत्वों भी अपने बुरे काम को अंजाम देने के लिए मोबाइल फ़ोन का प्रयोग कर रहे हैं। विभिन्न कारणों से मोबाइल फोन की विपत्तियों का दर्द युवतियाँ और लड़कियाँ अधिक झेलती हैं। मोबाइल फोन का अधिक उपयोग करने से उसका बुरा असर हमारे मस्तिष्क पर पड़ता है।

पर इन सब बुराईओं के बावजूद भी मोबाइल फोन हमारे लिए वरदान है। यदि मनुष्य इसके उपयोग को अपने अनुसार नियंत्रित कर ले तो इसके कारण होनेवाली मुसीबतों से बहुत हद तक बचा जा सकता है। जब एक छोटी-सी वस्तु में एक साथ इतनी सारी सुविधाएँ उपलब्ध हो और वह भी इतने कम पैसों में, तो भला, हम इसे अपने से अलग कैसे रख सकते हैं। वास्तव में जब मोबाइल फोन अपने साथ हो तो ऐसा प्रतीत होता है जैसे - सारी दुनिया अपनी जेब में है। अर्थात् दूसरे शब्दों में कहा जाए तो - 'मोबाइल बिना सब सुना'।

 Related Topics (Hindi Essay, Nibandh, Rachana, Letter Patra, Aavedan Patra, Hindi Grammar Vyakaran) 

Albert Einstein by Patrick Pringle - Class 11, Snapshots NCERT answers

Chapter 4, Albert Einstein at School by Patrick Pringle

NCERT answers of Class 11 NCERT English Supplementary Reader - Snapshots

Question 1: What do you understand by Einstein's nature from his conversations with his history teacher, his mathematics teacher and the head teacher? 
Answer: Einstein's was not contented with the education system of Germany where he was studying in school. As a result of which his behaviour at times seemed to be unruly in school. He believed in thinking original ideas. Einstein thought that education is meaningless if it cannot develop new ideas, skills and interest among the students.
He felt that merely learning facts and memorizing dates were of no use. This led to an unpleasant argument between Einstein and Mr. Braun, his history teacher.
From his conversation with the mathematics teacher Mr. Koch it can be inferred that he had a real interest in mathematics. It was the only class which he never missed. Albert seemed to be a lot more respectful and obedient towards his mathematics teacher. Unlike history teacher, the mathematics teacher had a different opinion about Einstein as he could identify the genius in him and willingly gave him a glowing testimonial.
Among all the three Einstein had the worst encounter with the head teacher. Here we find him defensive initially however; he became carefree at the end of the meeting as he showed his contempt by refusing to close the door on his way out. He didn't even mind to have a last look before leaving the school.
The above encounters show Albert Einstein as a creative individual with self respect, firm opinion and belief in himself.

Question 2: The school system often curbs individual talents. Discuss.
Answer: It is quite true that the school education often curbs individual talents. Most of the time, it is outdated and worthless. Education has no meaning if it cannot develop new ideas, creative skills and interest among the students. There will always be individual differences. One student may be genius in arts while other may be in math or science and yet another student may prove his talent in some sports. Books are only a part of education. Education is not just learning facts, figures or dates. Rather, our education system should be such that it can bring out the best talent from within a learner while he or she is learning in the school. Too much restrictions, formalities and discipline can be unproductive for all around growth in children. The school should act like a facilitator not a barrier. It should create conducive atmosphere where one can feel encouraged and inspired to attain the goal of life.

Question 3: How do you distinguish between information gathering and insight formation? 
Answer: 'Information gathering' means collecting information or data as the news reporters do to create news, article or a story. Without going much into the details or understanding the reasons, they just represent the information they gathered. The education system what Einstein found in his German school also stressed more on gathering information. The history teacher asked him when the Prussians defeated the French at Waterloo. Einstein thought mere learning of facts and figures has no meaning since these can be collected from any good book on that subject. What is important, understanding the reasons behind an event as also develop an idea which forms the basis of education.
On the other hand, 'Insight formation' means creating or forming an insight or deep understanding. Einstein believed insight formation must be the aim of education. He felt that education does not necessarily mean to learn dates and facts rather; it should teach one how to search the reason and understand the same. For example, mugging the dates of battles is not important but to probe into its cause is important so that the basis can be rooted later on. The real growth of mind, knowledge and creativity comes from 'insight formation' and not from 'information gathering'.

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