10 CBSE Guide for History - Events and Processes - Nationalism in India | Additional Questions Answers and More


Class 10, Events and Processes: Nationalism in India

Unit III, NCERT History India and the Contemporary World II

CBSE Guide n Guess - Additional Sample Questions

www.cbsencertsolution.com - graphic for Class 10 History
Question.1: What was the plan of Gandhiji to launch Non-Cooperation Movement ?
How did Non-Cooperation became a mass movement ?
Answer: Non-Cooperation took a shape of mass-movement after Gandhiji proposed that:
1. Non-Cooperation Movement should unfold in stages.
2. First of all, titles awarded by the government should be surrendered.
3. Secondly, Indians should boycott civil services, army, police, court, legislative councils, government schools and foreign goods.
4. In case government used repression, a full Civil Disobedience Movement should be launched.   

Question.2: What were the initial satyagraha movements led by Gandhi ?
What did Gandhiji do immediately after his arrival to India ?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi after his arrival in India, organized three small but important satyagraha movements which were –
(a) In 1916, Gandhiji organized Champaran satyagraha movement in Bihar. This movement was against oppressive plantation system.   
(b) In 1917, he organized satyagraha movement in support of poor peasants of Kheda district in Gujarat.
(c) In 1918, Gandhiji went to Ahmedabad to organize a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers. 

Question.3: Write a short note on ‘Rowlatt Act’.
Answer: In 1919, the Imperial Legislative Council passed the Rowlatt Acts, giving the Indian colonial authorities enormous powers to repress the political activities and satyagrahis. It also allowed detention of political prisoners without trials for two years. This Act was hurriedly passed by the British Parliament despite there was a united opposition from all Indian members.
A demonstration against Rowlatt Acts resulted in a massacre of unarmed Indian protesters Indian protesters at Amritsar (Jallianwala Bagh) by the British soldiers. This incident left permanent scar on Indo - British relations and was the prelude to Mahatma Gandhi’s organized campaign of Non-Cooperation Movement against the British Government.    

Question.4: Write a short note on ‘Khilafat Movement’.
Who started Khilafat Movement ? What were the aims of Khilafat Movement ? How did this movement help in     bringing unity between Hindus and Muslims of this country ?
Answer: The movement arose in India in early 20th century as a result of Muslim fears for the integrity of Islam. These fears were aroused by Italian and Balkan attacks on Ottoman Empire of Turkey whose sultan - the Khalifa was the spiritual head of the Islamic world. There were rumours after the defeat of Turkey in World War I that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman Turkey. A movement in defence of Khalifa’s temporal powers was launched in India led by the Ali brothers – Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali with Abul Kalam Azad. A Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919. These leaders joined forces with Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation movement for Indian freedom, promising non-violence in return for his support of Khilafat Movement.
Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified National Movement. He tried hard to achieve Hindu-Muslim unity by supporting the Khilafat Movement. The Khilafat Movement coincided with the inception of Satyagraha, thus giving the illusion of a unified Non-Cooperation Movement against British in support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj.       
Question.5: What happened in India during 1918 - 1921 which cost millions of life ?
Answer: During this period, crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute shortage of foods. This was followed by an epidemic. About 12 - 13 million people died as a result of famines and the epidemic.   

Question.6: Which tax was introduced during the First World War ? How was the War cost met ?
Answer: Income tax was introduced during the First World War in Britain.
To meet war cost, custom duties were increased. 


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