Ruling The Countryside - CBSE guess questions for Chapter 3, 8th NCERT History


Class 8 NCERT History - Ruling the CountrysideCBSE Guess questions with answers

CBSE Guess Questions with their Answers (Short)

Question.1: When and who appointed the Company as Diwan of Bengal?

Answer: On 12th August, 1765, the Mughal emperor appointed the East India Company as the Diwan of Bengal.

CBSE Guess Questions with their Answers (Long)

Question.2: Write short notes on:
i. Permanent Settlement.
ii. Mahalwari System.
iii. The Munro System (Ryotwari System).

        (i)        Permanent Settlement: The Bengal economy fell sharply was facing a deep crisis after the company was given the rights of Diwan. The company officials realized that it was due to their lack of planning which led to the downfall in Indian economy and their revenue collection.  The zamindars were not investing for the improvement of land. In order to encourage investment in land and improve agriculture the company introduced the Permanent Settlement in 1793.It was devised by Lord Cornwallis. According to this system The Rajas and Taluqdars were recognized as Zamindars. They were agreed to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount to be paid (revenue) was fixed permanently that it was not to be increased ever in future. The condition was that the Zamindars had to pay this revenue rigidly on due date even if the crop had failed for some reason as otherwise the land was auctioned. It was felt that this would ensure a regular flow of revenue into the Company’s coffers and at the same time encourage the Zamindars to invest for improving the land because the zamindar would benefit if he could increase production from the land by his own efforts. On the contrary the Company officials ultimately discovered that the zamindars were not interested in investment for improvement of the land. It was also discovered that the revenue which had been fixed was so high that the zamindars found it difficult to pay. The peasants were in distress as they found the system extremely oppressive. So ultimately the ‘Permanent Settlement’ system was not successful as expected. 

      (ii)        Mahalwari System: As the Permanent Settlement system became unsuccessful so, the Company introduced another system popularly known as Mahalwari System. This system was devised by Holt Mackenzie which came into effect in 1822 in the North West provinces of Bengal Presidency. The revenue was not fixed and the Government could increase the same whenever it was in need of money to meet its expenses of administration. The estimated revenue of each plot within a village was added up to calculate the revenue that each mahal (village) had to pay. The charge of collecting the revenue and paying it to the Company was given to the village headman. Thus the ‘village’ and the ‘village headman’ would benefit since there was no middleman between the British and the village headman. The village headmen had a scope to negotiate with the Company if they were unable to pay the revenue fro some reason and also continued to cultivate the land.

     (iii)        The Munro System (Ryotwari System): In the British territories of the south a similar system existed as the Permanent Settlement. The new system was known as the ‘ryotwari system’. Captain Alexander Read tried this on small scale in some of the areas annexed after the wars with Tipu Sultan. Since this system was developed by Thomas Munro so, it is also known as Munro System. It was gradually extended all over South India. Read and Munro found that there were no traditional zamindars. This settlement had to be made directly with the cultivators (ryots) who had tilled the land for generations. The fields of cultivators had to be carefully and separately surveyed before the assessment of revenue. Munro had the idea that the British should not act as paternal father figures who would protect the ryots under their charge. But within a few years it was felt that all not well as nothing happened as it was expected. The revenue officials fixed too high a revenue demand. Ryots were not able to pay the revenue. As a result they fled to the countryside and villages became deserted. Although it was expected that the new system would transform the peasants into rich farmers, but it failed to happen.   

 Further Study (NCERT Solutions)

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