Law and Social Justice - NCERT answers of CBSE education Class 8 Chapter 10 Social and Political Life - Economic Presence of the Government


CBSE Class 8 Social and Political Life III

Unit V: Economic Presence of the Government

Chapter 10, Law and Social Justice

NCERT Answers - NCERT Solutions

Question 2:  What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Answer: There are quite a few advantages for which the foreign companies try to set up their production in developing countries like India. These are - 
  1. Availability of skilled workforce at a cheap rate. 
  2. Cost savings by means of lower safety measures and poor facilities for the workers and employees.
  3. To take advantage of weaker laws.
  4. Availability of space at their choice.
  5. Availability of good quality raw materials at low rates.
  6. Government incentives.

Question 3: Do you think the victims of Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Answer: No, the victims of Bhopal gas tragedy are still fighting for justice.
At first, the Union Carbide (UC) refused to accept responsibility despite the wide-open, so many evidences of the tragedy. The UC got away after paying a bare minimum compensation to the survivors of this tragedy. Even after 24 years the survivors are still fighting for justice, for safe drinking water, for health-care facilities and jobs for the poisoned by UC. Their cases are still pending in numerous courts.

Question 4: What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Answer: When we speak of law enforcement we mean that the provisions of the law must be applicable to all people without any discrimination, in letter and spirit.
The responsibility for enforcement of any law lies with the Government. While the Government has a leading role in this respect, to some extent people are also responsible since they can exert pressure to the Government officials or organisations for the enforcement and implementation of any law.
Through making, enforcing and upholding these laws the Government can control the activities of individuals or organisations to ensure social justice. Unless a law is enforced it has no importance. Enforcement becomes even more important when the law seeks to protect the weak from the strong.

Question 5: How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Answer: Law can ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair by ensuring the enforcement of the law in letter and spirit.
  • Law against hoarding and black marketing must be enforced in such a way that stringent punishment be given to the violators of the law and the hoarded goods must be forfeited.
  • Anti Child Labour Act must be enforced, not a single child must be allowed to work in shops, tea stalls and restaurants.

Question 6: Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read our your responses in the classroom.
Answer: My life would change drastically. 
  • There will be no pollution.
  • Wages would increase.
  • Housing facilities would be provided.
  • Some problems would come initially to be settled at a new place.
  • Employer would pay more attention to the workers.

Question 8: What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Answer: There are many sources of environmental pollution in our area.
a) Air Pollution: By vehicles, industrial gases disposed through chimneys, smokes from red brick Bhattas.
b) Water Pollution: Various chemical discharges and other liquid effluents from some industries like tanneries, aluminium etc. Because of dry latrines and inefficient discharge of house wastes and sewerage into the river.
c) Soil Pollution: Due to the throwing of plastic bags here and there, lack of proper arrangement of disposing household wastes, industrial effluents and ashes etc.
In the recent years there has been a consistent increase in awareness of the need for a clean environment. The courts in our country have come out with a number of strong orders on the environmental issues and accordingly steps are also being taken to reduce pollutions. But still many more things have to be done in this direction:
  1. Appropriate measures need to be taken by countries and local authorities of the world to stop the misuse or overuse of resources.
  2. Environmental degradation can be checked by conserving land, air and water resources. For this we have to control the pollutants at the source.
  3. By proper enforcement of laws and norms related to environmental issues such as - use of plastic bags, disposal of all type of wastes, harmful emissions from different industries, etc. People can also help and pressurize Government authorities to create a cleaner environment.

Question 9: How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Answer: Earlier the environment was treated as a 'free' entity and any industry or even an individual could pollute the air and water without any restrictions. Whether it was our rivers, air, and groundwater - the environment was being polluted since there were no laws in this regard.
In the recent years and particularly the Bhopal gas tragedy has brought the issue of environment to the forefront. Now the perception has completely changed and the people have understood that the environment is something which the people over generations will share. There has been an increasing awareness among all that a clean environment is a public facility that cannot be destroyed merely for industrial development. The courts also gave a number of judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to life.

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