Minerals and Energy Resources | Class X Ncert Cbse Geography Solutions | Chapter 5, Contemporary India II


Class 10th CBSE Geography - Contemporary India II 
 Chapter 5, Minerals and Energy Resources 
NCERT solutions for Exercise Questions
Q.1: Multiple choice questions:
(i) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks?
(a) Sedimentary rocks
(b) Metamorphic rocks
(c) Igneous rocks
(d) None of these.
(ii) Which of the following mineral is formed by decomposition of rocks leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) Coal
(b) Bauxite
(c) Gold
(d) Zinc.
(iii) Koderma in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Mica
(c) Iron ore
(d) Copper
(iv) Which one of the following is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) Oil
(b) Uranium
(c) Thorium
(d) Coal
Answer: (i)-a (ii)-b (iii)-b (iv)-c.
Q.2: Answer the following questions;
(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words –
(a) Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy.
(ii) What is a mineral?
(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?
Answer: (i)
(a) Ferrous minerals – All those minerals which are iron based. They are metallic in nature e.g. iron ore, manganese.
Non-Ferrous minerals – All those minerals which do not iron are non-ferrous minerals e.g. copper, gold, lead etc.  
Conventional sources of energy
Non-Conventional sources of energy
1. Conventional sources of energy are those sources which have been in use from time immortal.
2. They are exhaustible except hydro-energy.
3. They cause pollution when used as they emit smoke and ash.
4. Their generation and use involve huge expenditure.
5. Very expensive to maintain, store, transmit as they are carried over long distances through transmission grids.
6. Examples are – coal, natural gas, water, fire-wood.  
1. Non-conventional sources of energy have generally been identified in the recent past.
2. They are inexhaustible.
3. Generally these are pollution-free.
4. Low expenditure required.
5. Less expensive due to local use and easy maintenance.
6. Examples are – geothermal energy, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, biogas energy, nuclear energy.

(ii) Mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definite internal structure.
(iii) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in cracks, crevices, faults and joints. They are formed when minerals in liquid or molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through these weak zones (cavities) towards earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise towards the surface. Tin, copper, zinc, lead and diamond etc. are various minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(iv) Mineral resources are limited. It takes million of years for their formation and therefore, these resources are non-renewable and non-replenishable. Increasing consumption and continued extraction of ores lead to increasing costs of extraction and a sharp decrease in their quality and quantity.
So, it is most important for us to conserve mineral resources as it is feared that with this rate of consumption the day is not far away when most of the metallic and non-metallic mineral reserves and fossil fuel deposits will be fully exhausted.           
Q.3: Answer the following questions.
(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.
(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?
(i) In India coal deposits are found mainly of two geological ages –
1. Gondwana coal deposits, which are about 200 million years old. The major coal deposits in India are Gondwana coal which are metallurgical coal and are located in Damodar Valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand). These constitute mainly Jharia, Dhanbad, Ranigunj, and Bokaro coal fields. Besides, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valley also contain coal deposits.
2. Tertiary coal deposits which are around 55 million years old. Tertiary coal deposits are found in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
(ii)  Solar energy has a bright future in India because –
1. India being a tropical country receives sunlight in abundance throughout the year.
2. Solar plants can be easily established in rural and remote areas.
3. It will minimize the dependence of rural households on firewood and dunk cakes which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.  
Further Study on the chapter ‘Minerals and Energy Resources’
CCE type sample questions - MCQ | Minerals and Energy Resources | Contemporary India II | Ncert Cbse Class Xth Geography [Read]

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