Nutrition in Plants | Chapter 1, Class VII NCERT (CBSE) Science


Class VII, NCERT (CBSE) Science
Chapter 1, Nutrition in Plants
Textbook Exercise Solution
Q.1: Why do organisms need to take food?
Ans: Food is required by all living organisms mainly for four reasons or purposes:
(1) Food helps a living organism to grow. If enough food is not given or if, the food given is not of right kind, the organism will not have proper growth.
(2) Another important function of food is to provide energy which is required for any living organism for movements and other activities.
(3) Food is also needed by living organisms for replacement and repairing of their damaged parts.
(4) Food provide us the power to fight against infections and diseases.  
Q.2: Distinguish between a parasite and a saprotroph.
1. A parasite takes readymade food from the organism on which it feeds.
2. They feed on a living organism.
3. The organism on which it feeds is called host.
4. It deprives the host of valuable nutrients.
1. They secrete the digestive juices on the matter they live and convert it into a solution and then absorb it.
2. They feed on dead and decaying organism.
3. They do not feed on a living organism.
4. There is no host at all.

Q.3: How would you test the presence of starch on leaves?
Ans: The presence of starch on leaves can be tested by Iodine Test. Iodine turns starch solution blue. 
Q.4: Give a brief description of the process of synthesis of food in green plants.
Ans: Leaves have a green pigment called chlorophyll. In presence of sunlight, they use carbon dioxide and water to synthesize carbohydrate. During this process oxygen is released. The carbohydrates ultimately get converted into starch.
Carbon dioxide from air is taken through stomata. Water and minera;ls are absorbed by roots and transported to leaves.  
Q.6: Fill in the blanks:
(a) Green plants are called __________ since they synthesize their own food.
(b) The foods synthesized by the plants are stored as __________.
(c) In photosynthesis solar energy is captured by the pigment called _________.
(d) During photosynthesis plants take in ____________ and release _________.   
Ans: (a) autotrophs (b) starch (c) chlorophyll (d) carbon dioxide, oxygen.    
Q.7: Name the following:
(i) A parasitic plant with yellow, slender, tubular stem.
(ii) A plant that has both autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
(iii) The pores through which leaves exchange gases.
Ans: (i) Cascuta (ii) Insectivorous plants (iii) Stomata.
Q.8: Tick the correct answer:
  (a)        Amarbel is an example of -
                     (i)        Autotroph
                    (ii)        Parasite
                   (iii)        Saprotroph
                  (iv)        Host
  (b)        The plant which taps and feeds on insects is -
                     (i)        Cuscuta
                    (ii)        China rose
                   (iii)        Pitcher plant
                  (iv)        Rose
Ans: (a) Parasite (b) Pitcher Plant.
Q.9: Match the items in column I with those in column II:
Column I
Column II
Pitcher Plant
Ans: Chlorophyll ---– Leaf. Nitrogen ––– Bacteria. Amarbel ––– Parasite.
Animals ––– Heterotrophs. Insects ––– Pitcher Plant.
Q.10: Mark “T” if the statement is true and “F” if it is false:
(i) Carbon dioxide is released during photosynthesis.
(ii) Plants which synthesize their food themselves are called saprotroph.
(iii) The product of photosynthesis is not a protein.
(iv) Solar energy is converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis.
Ans: (i) F (ii) F (iii) T (iv) T.
Q.11: Choose the correct option in the following:
Which part of the plant gets carbon dioxide from the air for photosynthesis?
(i) Root hair (ii) Stomata (iii) Leaf veins (iv) Sepals.
Ans: (ii) Stomata
Q.12: Which is the correct option in the following:
Plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere mainly through their -
(i) Roots (ii) Stem (iii) Flowers (iv) Leaves.
Ans: (iv) Leaves.   
(Additional Important Questions-Answers)
Q.1: Define: (a) Parasites and (b) Total Parasites (c) Partial Parasites
Ans: (a) Parasites - The organisms which depend on other living organisms for their food are called parasites. For example, cascuta, tapeworm, liver fluke etc. There are two types of parasites: Total parasite and Partial parasite.
(b) Total Parasites - The parasites which depend for both food and shelter on the host are called total parasites. For example, liver fluke, tape worm.
(c) Partial Parasites - Those parasites which depend only for food on the host are called partial parasites. For example, mosquito, lice etc.
Q.2: What is Symbiosis? What is Symbiotic relationship?
Ans: Symbiosis - It is the type of nutrition in which two different kinds of depend on each other for their nutrition. In this both the organisms are benefitted by each other e.g., lichen. In this one alga and one fungus live together and remain in symbiotic relationship.
Symbiotic Relationship - Some organisms live together and share shelter and nutrients. This type of relationship is called symbiotic relationship.
Q.3: Fill in the blanks:
  (i)    All organisms take ________ and utilize it to get energy for growth and the maintenance of their bodies.
 (ii)    Green plants synthesize their food themselves by the process of __________ they are called ________.
(iii)    ________ energy is stored by the leaves with the help of chlorophyll.
(iv)    ________ derive nutrition from dead, decaying matter.
(v)    Plants like cascuta takes food from __________ plant.
(vi)    All animals are categorized as ________.
(vii)    ________ is produced and ________ is utilized during photosynthesis.   
Ans: (i) food (ii) photosynthesis, autotrophs (iii) Solar (iv) Fungi / saprotroph (v) host (vi) Heterotrophs (vii) oxygen, carbon dioxide
Q.4: What is the mode of nutrition in fungi?
Ans: Fungi secrete digestive juices on dead and decaying matter and convert it into a solution. Then they absorb nutrients from it. This mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in solution form from dead and decaying matter is called saprotrophic nutrition.
Q.5: Choose the true (T) and false (F) statements:
1)  Food is essential for all living beings.
2)  Leaves are the food factories of plant.
3)  Water comes into leaves through stomata in the form of vapours.
4)  Plants utilize the carbon dioxide dissolved in the water absorbed by the roots for photosynthesis.
5)  The sun is the ultimate source of energy for all living organisms.
6)  Algae are saprotrophs.
7)  Cascuta is a parasite.
8)  Saprotrophs take their food in solution form from dead and decaying matter.
9)  Insectivorous plants are partial Heterotrophs.
10)   Plants take atmospheric nitrogen stomata and utilize a nutrient.
11)   Pitcher plant is an insectivorous plant.
12)   Many fungi are saprotroph.
13)   ‘Leaves’ of a plant is called its food factory.
14)   Insectivorous plants eat insects to fulfill their needs of energy.
Ans: 1.-T 2.-F 3.-F 4.-F 5.-T 6.-F 7.-T 8.-T 9.-T 10.-F 11.-T 12.-T 13.-T 14.-F

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