CBSE Guide Class 10 NCERT Solutions > 10th NCERT History Answers
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Class 10 NCERT History Chapter 2, India and the Contemporary World II
NCERT Answers - CBSE Guide - NCERT Solutions
Notes and Terms
Indentured Labour: Contractual labourers with no specific rights who worked in the plantations in the mid 19th century.
Civilising Mission: Western countries considered themselves to be an advanced civilisation. They thought it was their duty to introduce modern ideas to the uncivilised or barbaric cultures of the world. This is called the civilising mission. The French were driven by the civilising mission idea in Vietnam.
Concentration Camps: A prison where people were detained illegally and subjected to torture.
Napalm: An organic compound used in fibre bombs. The mixture burns slowly when it comes into contact with human body. It sticks and continues to burn.
Domino Effect: The policy of Domino Effect evolved out of US fear for the spread of communism. The US believed that if Vietnam became a communist country, its neighbouring countries would be influenced by it and would all become communists.
Syncretic Traditions: A tradition that brings together different beliefs and practices by seeing their unity and not their difference.
Question 1: What does 1902 plague and the measures to control it tell us about the French colonial attitude towards questions of health and hygiene?
Answer: The French colonial attitude towards questions of health and hygiene was totally irresponsible and unacceptable by any standards.
Question 2: What ideas did Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh share in common? What did they differ on?
Answer: Both, Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh wanted to uproot French colonial government from Vietnam. They wanted to free their motherland but their idea have common as well as contradictory elements.
Ideas in common:
- Both wanted to free their motherland.
- Both believed in Nationalist ideals
Ideas that differed:
- Chan had anti-French alliance with elite classes of Vietnam and China. He even set up a revolutionary society with a prince as its head. On the contrary Trinh always opposed alliance with monarchy or the elite classes.
- Chau was inclined towards Chinese culture while Trinh was inclined towards ideals of French revolution such as liberty and was in favour of western culture.
- Chau never appreciated or demanded reform of legal, educational or agricultural spheres, as was done by French. Trin wished that these fields should be reformed by the French authorities.
NCERT answers of Class 10 History Chapter 2, Exercise Questions
Question 1: Write a note on:
(a) What was meant by the 'Civilising Mission' of the colonisers.
(b) Huynh Phu So
Answer (a): French colonisation was not only based on economic exploitation but was also driven by their self-granted idea of 'Civilising Mission'. The 'Civilising Mission' of the colonisers was another method in disguise for controlling colonies. European powers considered themselves to be an advanced civilisation. They thought that it was their duty to spread modern ideas and their civilisation around the world, even if this was done by force.
Like British in India, the French were driven by the 'Civilising Mission' idea in Vietnam. In the name of 'Civilising Mission' they tried to destroy the indigenous cultures, traditions and religion. So, the 'Civilising Mission' was often criticised for having double standards and adverse effects.
Answer (b): Huynh Phu So was a Buddhist religious scholar who was a native of Mekong river delta. He launched Hoa Hao Movement which drew on religious ideas popular in anti-French uprisings of the 19th century. He was a great social reformer as he opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.
Huynh Phu So had to face huge trouble when he began to spread his ideas of his religion because most of his followers were Vietnamese nationalists. The colonial government declared him mad, named him the Mad Bronze and kept him in a mental asylum. The French authorities exiled him to Laos in 1941 and sent mammy of his followers to concentration camps.
Question 2: Explain the following:
(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.
(b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.
(c) The government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it had expelled.
(d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi.
Answer (a): Only one-third of the students would pass the school leaving examinations because more number of qualified Vietnamese students will give competitions to French students in well-paid jobs. This, the colonial French government never wanted to happen and so they used to deliberately fail a high number of Vietnamese students to prevent their entry in good employment.
Answer (b): Mekong delta was world famous because of its rice production as it was a fertile delta land. French government made huge profits by exporting rice produced in Mekong delta. Therefore, to expand rice producing cultivated area, canals and draining lands were built in the Mekong delta.
Answer (c): The expelled students issue had snowballed into a great protest. This made French government bow down to the pressure of Vietnamese and it ordered Saigon Native Girls School to take back the students it had expelled.
Answer (d): Rats bred in thousand of numbers in the underground sewer pipelines of the modern, newly built area of Hanoi as these pipelines provided the ideal and protected breeding grounds for rats. Hanoi, despite its modernity, became the chief cause of plague in 1903. The sewers also served as a great transport system, allowing the rats to move around the city without any problem.
Question 3: Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin Free School. To what extent was it a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam?
Answer: The main idea behind the Tonkin Free School was the “Civilising Mission”. French colonial government decided to teach French and science philosophy and the western culture, in the French medium and hence, the Tonkin Free School came up.
Tonkin Free School used to teach and follow biased curriculum that ridiculed Vietnamese culture. They looked down at the Vietnamese people as “Skilled Copyists”, one who has only manual power rather than intellectual power.
Tonkin Free School also promoted western culture by modern lifestyle as it was compulsory for every Vietnamese student to have modern dress and short hair style. This, according to schools, would give a feeling of modernization to the students.
In fact, the Tonkin Free School was an extreme example of imposing colonial ideas in Vietnam.
Question 4: What was Phan Chu Trinh's objective for Vietnam? How were his ideas different from those of Phan Boi Chau?
Answer: Phan Chu Trinh was a nationalist who wanted to free Vietnam from France. He had an objective to continue all progressive activities initiated by the French in the democratic republic which he wanted to establish.
Phan Boi Chou was inclined towards Chinese culture. He also wanted to free Vietnam from France but, he was in favour of establishing Chinese traditional rule and system in Vietnam. Chou tried to win freedom with the help of monarchy and Vietnamese elite.
On the contrary, Trinh was against monarchy and opposed taking help of monarchy or Vietnamese elite in the freedom struggle.
Question 1: With reference to what you have read in this chapter (The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China) discuss the influence of China on Vietnam's culture and life.
Answer: Vietnam was ruled by Chinese dynasties for a long period before France could colonize it. For this simple reason, the Chinese culture had a sizeable influence on the Vietnamese culture and lifestyle. For example,
- Chinese religion Confucianism was practiced in Vietnam along with Buddhism and other local religious practices.
- Vietnamese intellectuals like Phan Boi Chau relied on Chinese help in Vietnam’s freedom struggle.
- In the ancient times women like Trung sisters and Trieu Au fought against Chinese rule. This gave the Vietnamese an idea of fighting strategies against their enemies. The deeds and actions of these women also inspired many nationalists of 20th century in Vietnam.
- Moved by the success of communism in China Ho Chi Minh, a great nationalist of Vietnam, adopted communism for his freedom struggle against French.
Question 2: What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam?
Answer: Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a more of Buddhism mixed with Confucianism and some local religious practices. Religious groups played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam. The anti-French religious movement Hoa Hao was a burning example of this. Led by Huynh Phu So in 1939, this movement had many followers.
The Scholars Revolt of 1868 was also an anti-French, anti-Christianity movement which successfully mobilized many Vietnamese against French. The revolutionaries killed thousands of Catholics in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces.
Although French crushed all such uprisings, yet nobody could ever underestimate the significance of these movements or in the role of religious groups in raising anti-colonial sentiments in Vietnam.
Question 3: Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within the US itself?
Answer: In 1965, the USA intervened in Vietnam due to the following reasons:
- First and foremost was the fear of the spread of communism in Vietnam. US regarded the spread of communism a great danger to the capitalist countries. US were ready to fight against communism in any part of the world. So, when communism showed its head in Vietnam, she at once came forward to check it.
- The second reason of US involvement in Vietnam was the humiliation that France had to face in Vietnam. Being the leader of capitalist countries, US wanted to crush Vietnam at all costs to save the prestige of capitalist countries.
- The Geneva conference had divided Vietnam into two parts - North Vietnam and South Vietnam. When the Ho-Chi-Minh-government in North Vietnam and National Liberation Front tried to unify the two parts of Vietnam in the violation of Geneva conference, US could not tolerate this and declared to intervene in Vietnam.
Effect of this involvement on USA:
- Even though US had advanced technology and a brilliant army, ultimately they had to bow before the determination, courage and patriotic spirit of the Vietnamese people.
- Eventually, US lost their prestige as they failed to achieve their objectives.
- More than forty seven thousand people died in the battle and more than three lakh were wounded.
- Many were critical of the government policy that they saw it as indefensible. The US media and films played a major role in criticizing the war.
Question 4: Write an evaluation of the Vietnamese war against the US from the point of
(a) a porter on the Ho Chi Minh tail
(b) a woman soldier.
It’s not important from exam point of view.
Rather you must study our CBSE sample and CBSE Guess questions with solutions on this chapter - The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China - Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) -To be published soon
Question 5: What ease the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam? Compare this with the role of women in the Nationalist struggle in India.
Role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam :
- The women of Vietnam played an important role in the anti-imperialist struggle in Vietnam. The ancient legend of heroic Vietnamese women like Trung sister and Trieu Au inspired many of 20th century Vietnamese nationalists.
- They worked as porters and carried 25 kilos of food or war materials on their backs. They nursed wounded and dug tunnels to save their army from imperialistic powers.
- As many as 1.5 million women worked in the army. They neutralized thousand s of bombs and helped to shot down many enemy planes.
- They kept open many strategic roads and guarded key points. Without their sacrifice and heroic involvement, the fate of Vietnamese struggle for independence would have been quite different and difficult.
- Women were represented not only as warriors but also as workers. They were shown with a rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other. Whether young or old, women began to be depicted as selflessly working and fighting to save their country.
Role of Indian women in the Nationalist struggle in India :
The women’s participation in India’s National Freedom struggle was not less than the Vietnamese women. There is no doubt that the Vietnamese women showed great heroism and patriotism, but we cannot forget the role of Rani Laxmi Bai, Rani Begam Hazrat Mahal, Sarojini Naidu, Kanaklata Barua, Matangani Hazra, Bina Das, Kadambini Ganguly, Pritilata Waddedar, Rani Rashmoni Roy, Kasturba Gandhi, Aruna Asif Ali, Annie Besant, Sucheta Kripalani and many women with exceptional bravery and intelligence who walked shoulder to shoulder with men of their times during Swadeshi Aandolan, Quit India Movement etc. How can we ever forget the great heroism shown by a small girl of only 13 years named Quees Gaidnilieu. She was a brave Heroine of Nagaland raised the standard of revolt against the foreign rule. Her braveness was so high that the British had to capture this little girl patriot and sentenced her to life imprisonment.
CBSE sample and CBSE Guess questions with solutions on this chapter - The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China - Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) - Keep watching this page - to be published soon