Reproductive Health - CBSE Class 12 NCERT Biology Answers of Textbook Exercise Questions


CBSE Class 12, NCERT Biology (Zoology)

Reproductive Health

Question 1: What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
Answer: A reproductively healthy society has people who possess physically and functionally normal reproductive organs and normal emotional and behavioural interactions among them in all sex-related aspects. A healthy reproductive society is significant because its people are aware of:
·  STDs and how to avoid them.
·  Adolescence and related changes. 
·  Family planning, methods of birth control, and its importance.
·  How to take care of pregnant women and postnatal care of mother and baby.
·  Need for maintaining health standards and hence, prosperity of the society.     
Government of India is trying to attain a reproductively healthy society through various measures such as, family planning programmes and Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH). They provide strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise, and material support. Many non-governmental organizations (NGO) working in this field are also providing guidance and medical assistance to people for reproduction related problems.
Question 2: Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Answer: Reproductive health is a collective term which deals with the welfare of society in all aspects of reproduction. Some of the important aspects of reproductive health include -
1.  Problems arising because of uncontrolled population growth.
2.  Sexually related social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes.
3.  Safe and hygienic sexual practices.
4.  Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and how to avoid them.
5.  Care of pregnant mother.
6.  Postnatal care of mother and child.
7.  Knowledge of reproductive organs.
8.  Adolescence and related changes.
Question 3: Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Answer: Yes, sex education necessary in schools.
The young individuals make a great portion of population of India. They belong to different age groups such as puberty, adolescent and early adulthood. It is very important and so, necessary to impart sex-education in schools since it gives:
1.  Right information and clear mis-conceptions and confusions about sex-related aspects.
2.  Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescences and its related changes.
3.  Knowledge about safe and hygienic sexual practices.
4.  Information about sexually transmitted diseases and how to avoid them.
Question 4: Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Answer: I think in the last 50 years the reproductive health of the society is significantly improved.
India has seriously taken up the cause to attain a reproductively healthy society. It is the first country to implement awareness and health programme on a national scale. In 1951, the government initiated various family planning programmes but has geared up in 1983. For example Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH), Family Planning Programmes, Girl Child Protection Programme, Rural Health Development Programme etc. RCH programmes are creating awareness among people about various aspects related to reproduction. Government along with NGOs with the help of audio-visual aids and print media is creating awareness among people about the importance of reproductive health. Strong infrastructural facilities, professional guidance, sex-education at school level, and material support are being provided through these programmes. Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow and others are also doing advanced research in improving various reproduction related facilities. Other examples of improvement are -
·  Massive child immunization programmes like, Pulse Polio has been successfully implemented, and        Amniocentesis has been legally banned to stop increasing female foeticides. 
·  Rate of population growth has been brought down. 
·  Infant mortality has significantly improved. 
·  People have been made aware of STDs and their prevention  
Question 5: What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Answer: The suggested reasons for population explosions are as follows:
1.  Better health facilities.
2.  Decline in Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) & Infant Mortality Rate (IMR).
3.  Large portion of population belonging to the ‘reproductive age’ group.
4.  Advancement in medical technology leading to better treatment
5.  Better living conditions.
Question 6: Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Answer: The use of contraceptives is justified because of the following reasons:
1. It is the simplest way to control population growth and unwanted pregnancy.
2. It prevents spreading of STDs (including AIDS).
3. They are user friendly, easily available and have no side effects.
4. It is reversible.
5. Use of contraceptives does not interfere with the sexual desire or the sexual act of the user.
Question 7: Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraceptive option. Why?
Answer: Removal of gonads cannot be considered a method of contraception since it is irreversible. An ideal contraceptive should be reversible, easily available user friendly options, effective with least side effects and also should not interfere with the sexual desire and act of the user.
(To be continued)
For Chapter 4, Reproductive Health (Question No. 8 - 12) please visit: 

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