CBSE Notes NCERT Guide for Class 7 Geography - Human Environment - Settlement, Transport and Communication


Class 7, NCERT Geography - OUR ENVIRONMENT

Human Environment - Settlement, Transport and Communication

CBSE Notes - CBSE Guide - CBSE Guess

CBSE Notes - Important Terms to Remember
Permanent Settlements: Settlements which are occupied for a regular period with no time limit are termed as permanent settlements.
Rural Settlements: Villages in which people are engaged mainly in primary activities are called rural settlements.
Urban Settlements: Towns and cities in which people are mainly engaged in secondary and tertiary activities are urban settlements.
Transhumance: It is a seasonal movement of people, who rear animals move in search of new pastures according to changes in season is called transhumance. For example - Gurjars of JK, Bakkarwals of Uttarakhand. Generally they shift from mountain to valleys in summer and in winter, from valleys to mountains.
Compact Settlements: Closely built dwellings in rural areas in plains constitute compact settlements.    
Slum and Squattered Settlements: Settlements where people live in congested and unhygienic conditions are called squattered settlements.
Transport: Transport is the means by which people and goods move.
Communication: Communication is the process of conveying messages, ideas and information from one place to another.          

CBSE Guess Sample Questions (Short)
Question.1: What are the criteria for selection of site for settlements?
Answer: Selection of site for settlements was made on the basis of these natural criteria:
a)     Favourable climate
b)     Availability of water
c)     Suitable land
d)     Fertile soil.

Question.2: What is the longest railway in the world?
Answer: The Trans - Siberian railway is the longest railway system in the world. It connects St. Petersburg in Western Russia to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.

Question.3: How did settlements become larger?
Answer: The settlements became larger with the development of trade, commerce and manufacturing over the long time. As a result of the above settlements flourished and civilizations spread near river valleys.

Question.4: Name some important inland waterways of the world.
a)     Ganga-Brahmaputra river system
b)     Great lakes in North America
c)     Nile in Africa.

CBSE Guess Sample Questions (Long)
Question.5: Give one merit and demerit of waterways.
   Merits -
1.     Waterways are the cheapest means of carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.
2.     In rural areas waterways serve a very cheap means of transport for people also.
   Demerits -
1.   Waterways are not available everywhere since it requires either sea, oceans, big rivers or big lakes.

Question.6: Give some merits and demerits of roadways as a means of transport.
       Merits -
1.   The most commonly used means of transport especially for short distances are roadways.
2.   The plains have a dense network of roads.
       Demerits -
1.   There is not much demerits in case of roadways however, the only demerit is that we can not send goods in bulk at a time like those in railways.
2.   High maintenance of roads is required especially after rainy seasons and it is not as comfortable as railways or airways.

Question.7: Give some merits and demerits of railways as a means of transport.
       Merits -
a.   It carries heavy goods and a large number of people over short and long distances quickly, comfortably and at a very cheap rate.
b.   Superfast trains now-a-days have reduced the time of journey significantly.
c.   Railways network is well-developed in plains.
d.   Electromotive engines are the most environment-friendly mode of transport among all.

      Demerits -
a.   In case of casualty, recovery of goods and its value is very difficult.

Question.8: Give some merits and demerits of airways as a means of transport.
        Merits -
1.   Airways are the fastest means of transport in the world.
2.   Only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways.
3.   In time of calamities like floods etc, air transport is extensively used for rescue and relief services.

        Demerits -
1.   The most expensive means of transport among all.
2.   Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather very often.
3.   In case of any casualty the risk of life and materials are almost hundred percent.

NCERT Solutions

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