Minerals and Energy Resources | Ncert Cbse Class X Geography - Contemporary India II
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Open cast or Open-pit mining: It refers to a method of extracting rocks or minerals by removing the overlying materials (over burden) from shallow depth. Open-pit mines are used en deposits of commercially useful minerals or rocks are found near the surface, that is, where the overburden can be removed economically.
Quarry: It is used for extracting materials such as stones etc. Quarry is usually shallower than open-pit mines.
Shaft mining: When minerals occur deep below the surface, where the overburden is thick, or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rocks, then underground shaft mining is done to extract the ore. Shaft mines have vertical access to the seam via elevators that carry workers and equipment into the mines. Shaft mining is a method of mining in which vertical and horizontal shafts are made to extract the materials from deep under the earth surface.
1. In igneous and metamorphic rocks as cracks, crevices, faults, and joints.
2. In beds and layers of sedimentary rocks by accumulation and concentration.
3. By decomposition of surface rocks e.g. Laterite, Bauxite.
4. Alluvial deposits in sands of valleys and along the sea coast or foot hills as “placer deposits”.
The reasons are –
1. High risks involved.
2. Due to poisonous fumes, mines are vulnerable to workers for pulmonary diseases.
3. Contaminated water sources.
4. Fires in coal mines, risks of collapsing mine roofs (top surface).
1. It is a mixture of combustible gaseous hydrocarbons occurring in the rocks of earth crust.
2. It is a commercial energy.
3. Used as raw material in petrochemicals.
4. Can be transported through pipelines to any long distance.
5. Mostly used in urban areas in India.
1. It is derived from organic wastes such as waste of animals and plants with the help of
microorganism in presence of water.
2. Non commercial energy.
3. It is produced in tanks.
4. Can be found mostly in rural areas.
The reasons are –
1. Hot and arid region getting maximum sun radiations.
2. Clear skies almost throughout the year.
3. Cheaper installation.
4. Renewable and pollution free energy source.
5. Government motivation.
Most of the petroleum producing areas in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in rock formations of Tertiary age. In the region folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the folding rock strata. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous rocks like – sandstone, limestone etc.
Major petroleum producing regions in India are –
1. Assam producing 16% of total production – Digboi, Naharkata, Moran-Hugrijan, Namdang.
2. Gujarat producing 18% of total production – Ankleshwar, Lunez, Navgam.
3. Mumbai High producing 63% of total production.
4. Godawari – Mahanadi basin.
Tilayya, Konar, Maithan, Panchet dams.
Narora (UP), Rawatbhatta (Rajasthan), Tarapur (Maharashtra), Kaiga (Karnataka), Kalapakkam (Tamil Nadu).
Further Study on the chapter ‘Minerals and Energy Resources’
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