NCERT Solutions of CBSE Class X Political Science | Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy



Class X Cbse Ncert Social (Political Science)

NCERT Solutions of Chapter 7, Democratic Politics II exercise questions

Question 1: How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government ?
1. Democracy produces an accountable government because it – (a) provides opportunity to the people to choose their rulers through regular, free and fair elections. (b) Carries open public debate on major public issues and legislations. (c) Gives citizens the right to information about the government and its functioning.
2. Democracy produces a responsive government because the government is formed by the elected representatives of the people. These representatives discuss the problems of the society and make policies and programmes accordingly. To address the problems, these policies and programmes are implemented.
3.  Democracy produces a legitimate government because it is the government of the citizens. It is the citizens who through their representatives form and run the government for themselves.

Question 2: What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities ?
Solution: Democracies are in a better position to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts. But a democracy must fulfil the following two conditions :
1.   Majority and minority should always work together. Majority should not try to run their authority over minority.
2.   No group should feel assured of being in majority all the time.

Class X, NCERT Solutions of Chapter 7, Outcomes of Democracy exercise questions

Question 3: Give arguments to support or oppose following assertions:
1. Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the  poor need dictatorship to become rich.
2. Democracy can’t reduce inequality of income between  different citizens.
3. Government in poor countries should spend less on  poverty reduction, health, education, clothing, and  spend more o industries and infrastructure.
4. In democracy all citizen have one vote, which means  that there is absence of any domination and conflict.
1.   The statement is incorrect and hence, I oppose it. For example, in 1947, India was included in the Third World nations. Since, than it has been ruled by various democratic governments till now when it is one of the fast-growing economies in the world.  While, on the other hand, the economic conditions of Zimbabwe, once upon a very prosperous country, has deteriorated very much under Robert-Mugabe’s regime.
2.   No, I oppose the statement that democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.  Inequality of income may be due to various social ailments and economic conditions. So, it should not be left to democracy alone to reduce inequality of income between different citizens.
3.   This argument is not acceptable for the reason that if the government does fulfil the basic needs of its people than it will loose its support among the people. On the contrary, government in poor countries should spend more on health and education as the people in such countries are found to be unable to meet these basic needs.
4.   No, in principle, they have been made equal on political footing by giving equal value to each vote but in practice there are many other factors that make one group dominant over the other. We cannot say that there is no conflict or domination in a democracy. There is a conflict of interest and domination of one group over the other, but democracy provides the means to negotiate and resolve them.

Question 4: Identify the challenges to democracy in following descriptions. Also suggest policy\institutional mechanism to deepen democracy in the given situation:
1. Following a High Court directive a temple in Orissa  that had separate entry door for dalits and non-dalits  allowed entry for all from the same door.
2. A large number of farmers are committing suicide in  different states of India.
3. Following allegation of killing of three civilians in  Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and  Kashmir police, an enquiry has been ordered.
1.  Here, people were discriminated on the basis of their birth in a particular caste or social group. This denies the democratic principle that all are equal irrespective of their birth, religion, etc. It was a challenge to the democracy to provide equal status to all its citizens which it did well.
2. This reflects a challenge to the democracy in terms of its policies and programmes. In a democracy, the government has to safeguard the interest of every social group including farmers.
3. This reflects that democracy has failed to secure the dignity and freedom of the people. This particular situation put a challenge to the democracy to maintain people’s trust in the J&K government arms like police. Following policy\institutional mechanism can deepen democracy:
    (i)  People should be promoted to respect differences between the social groups.
          (ii)  People should be promoted to resolve dispute through negotiations.
          (iii) Strengthening of the local government by providing them with more powers             and resources.
   (iv) People should be promoted to pay taxes so that their poor counterparts can be provided with a dignified life.
         (v) Government should make policies regarding the discriminated and                              disadvantaged sections of the society.
        (vi) Institutions should be made to evaluate the implementation of various policies           and programmes.

Class 10, NCERT Solutions of Chapter 7, Outcomes of Democracy exercise questions

Question 5: In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct – democracies have successfully eliminated:
A. Conflicts among people.
B. Economic inequalities among people.
C. Differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated.
D. The idea of political inequality.
Solution: D. The idea of political inequality.

Question 6: In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:
A. Free and fair elections.
B. Dignity of the individual.
C. Majority rule.
D. Equal treatment before law.
Solution: C. Majority rule.

Question 7: Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that
A. Democracy and development go together.
B. Inequalities exist in democracies.
C. Inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.
D. Dictatorship is better than democracy.
Solution: B. Inequalities exist in democracies.

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