Class 9, Social Science - Disaster Management
Introduction to Disaster Risk Management Understanding Disaster Mitigation
NCERT (CBSE) Solutions for Textbook Exercise Questions
Question.1: How do we reduce disaster risk ?
Solution: Both natural and man-made disasters are full of risks. Natural disasters like earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, tsunami etc. are unavoidable, but with little precaution one can check the occurring of the man-made disasters like accidents, fire and terrorist activities. But risks are involved in both the cases, which can be reduced by disaster risk management.
Disaster risk managements has mainly three major components -
1. Risk Identification and Assessment
Disaster risk identification enables the community to assess the hazards in time which threaten it and to analyze the different causes of their occurrence. Then assessment of the different physical, geographical, political and social factors can be made which cause various hazards. Disaster-prone location can be identified; a list of unsafe buildings and infrastructures can be prepared. An estimate of risk involved for livestock can be made and assessment of low income groups and physically weak people with low health status can be prepared. In fact, risk identification and assessment play an important role in Disaster Risk Management.
2. Risk Reduction
Disaster Risk Reduction is also an important component of Disaster Risk Management.
3. Risk Transfer
Risk Transfer is the third important component of Disaster Risk Management.
Question.2: What does mitigation involve? Give three examples of non-structural mitigation.
Solution: Mitigation involves structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse effects of natural hazards, environmental degradation and technological hazards. Three examples of non-structural mitigation are given below –
=> A legal framework should be prepared so that the people build only such structures which are capable of withstanding impacts of earthquakes cyclones etc. in a better way.
=> Land use planning should be properly made so that human activities in hazards prone areas can be controlled to avoid fatalities and losses. The people living in hazards prone areas should be shifted to safer locations by passing laws and ensuring that they are enforced.
=> All type incentives and financial help through Banks and other financial organizations may be extended to the people so that they are able to construct buildings that incorporate hazard resistant measures or they carry out repairs in their old construction.
=> Proper training and education should be provided those people who are either involved in disaster management or in construction work. Such Government officials, engineers, architects, planners etc. if trained properly, can prove very useful in encouraging mitigation.
Question.3: Enlist four ways through which disaster resistant construction can be achieved.
Solution: Disaster resistant construction can be achieved through the following ways:
=> Locating the building (site) in a safe place - The houses should be constructed in safer areas so that in case of any hazard or disaster they remain comparatively safe.
=> An estimate of the natural hazards - A disaster can be the result of any natural hazard like an earthquake, volcano, landslide, cyclone, flood etc. If it is known what type of natural hazard creates the disaster then appropriate measures can be taken to avoid major loss.
=> Proper building plans - If a good architect prepares the building perfectly then, the building can be better saved in case of any disaster.
=> Construction with suitable material and under good workmanship - If a building is constructed with suitable materials and under good workmanship then the chances of any casualties would be lesser in the event of any disaster.
Question.5: Cite a few ways through which disaster risk can be transferred.
Solution: By risk transfer we mean to devise different ways and means to which the individual or the community is compensated for the losses they incur in disasters. Disaster risk can be transferred through different ways, the chief among them are the following –
=> Insurance of homes, appliances, etc. as well as of crops is a good way of risk transfer.
=> Recreation of a community contingency fund through disaster management planning. Only the people will have to put a side or contribute a certain amount of money to be used in emergencies.
=> In the developed countries the private insurance sector contributes a lot in funding the reconstruction work after a natural disaster especially for those people who had insured their property and livelihood etc.
=> But in developing countries it is the government and the individuals involved who bear the major burden of the cost of disaster.
Question.6: How disaster management is useful ?
Solution: It helps to conserve and save development gains that are the result of years of hard work by communities and the governments.