Class X NCERT CBSE Guide for Social Science (History)
Chapter 7, India and the Contemporary World-II
Print Culture and the Modern World
points to remember
- The earliest kind of print technology was developed in Asia (China). It was a system of hand printing.
- The paper was also first invented in China.
- The Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand printing technology into Japan. The oldest Japanese book printed at AD 688, is the Buddhist “Diamond Sutra”.
Answers of Sample Questions (See Questions)
Q.1.Answer: In the ancient days after the invention of paper in China, it was rubbed against the inked surface of wooden blocks, from one side only. This was the traditional Chinese “Accordion Book”, in which paper was folded and stitched at side. Later it was duplicated by skilled men.
Q.2.Answer: Imperial China was based on a system of large bureaucracy. The employees were selected through written examination. For this purpose, candidates required textbooks to prepare for this examination.
Q.3.Answer: Rashasundari Devi, a young married girl wrote her autobiography “Amar Jiban” which was published in 1876. This was the first full-length autobiography published in Bengali language. Rashasundari Devi belonged to a conservative family and learnt reading-writing in the secrecy of her kitchen.
Q.4.Answer: Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain belonged to a highly conservative Muslim family. She learnt reading-writing after much struggling with her own effort. Later she became a noted educationalist and was strongly in favour of women’s education. She criticized and condemned strongly those men who tried to oppose women’s education.
Q.5.Answer: The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid 16th century. Jesuit priests learnt Konkani language and printed several tracts.
Q.6.Answer: James Augustus Hickey, a British, began to edit the ‘Bengal Gazette’ the first ever English weekly magazine from India later taken over by Gangadhar Bhattacharya. Thus, Gangadhar Bhattacharya became the first Indian to publish a news paper from India. By the close of 18th century a number of news papers and journals started to appear in India.
(1) In India the printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid 16th century. Jesuit priests learnt Konkani language and printed several tracts.
(2) By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in Konkani and Kanara languages. Catholic priests printed books in Tamil language for the first time in 1579 in Cochin. In 1713, first Malayalam books were printed.
(3) English printing developed much after the arrival of East India Company in India. By the end of 18th century a number of news papers and journals appeared in print. The first news paper to be published by an Indian was “Bengal Gazette”. It was published by Gangadhar Bhattacharya from Calcutta. From the beginning of 19th century in India the print culture had become so popular that the social reformers and even the common people including the poor started to feel the benefit of it.
Q.8.Answer: After 1857 revolt, the attitude to the freedom of press changed. Enraged Englishmen demanded the British government to control the ‘native’ press and also take actions against them. As vernacular newspapers became assertively nationalist, the colonial government thought to impose strict control on the vernacular presses.
As a result in 1878, the “Vernacular Press Act” was passed. This act was modeled on the Irish Press Laws. It provided the government extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular presses. The government started to keep regular track of the vernacular newspapers which were published from different provinces. According to this Act, if a report was judged seditious, the newspaper was warned, and if the ignoring was ignored the press was liable to be seized and the printing machines confiscated.
Q.9.Answer: In spite of the repressive measures taken by the Colonial Government to control local vernacular press by enacting the “Vernacular Press Act”, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of the country. They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities. The government tried to kill nationalist criticism by its all means. This in turn led to the renewed protests.
Balgangadhar Tilak wrote his sympathies for the deported Punjab revolutionaries in his publication “Kesari”. This led to his imprisonment provoking in turn widespread protest all over India.
Class 10, NCERT (CBSE) History Solutions - India and The Contemporary World - IIChapter 7, Print Culture and the Modern World | Solutions of NCERT Textbook Exercise Questions