Class 7, Towns, Trades and Crafts Persons
Sample Hot Questions based on NCERT textbook following CBSE syllabus, CCE pattern
Short type Questions with their Answers
Q.1: What were the kinds of towns in the medieval period? Or, For what purposes towns were made in the medieval period?
Answer: During the medieval period the towns were of many kinds which were made for
- The town used to be a temple town, administrative center, a commercial town or a port town.
- In fact, many towns combined several functions. They were administrative centers, temple towns, centers of commercial activities and craft production.
Q.2: Give an account of administrative centers of the Chola Dynasty (in the medieval period), especially the Thanjavur.
Answer: Administrative Centers of the Chola Dynasty:
- During the rule of the Chola dynasty Thanjavur was the capital a thousand years ago.
- The perennial river Kaveri flows near this beautiful town. The Rajarajeshvara temple was built by king Rajaraja of Chola dynasty.
- The town’s people are all praised for its architect Kunjaramallan Rajaraja Perunthachchan. He proudly carved his name on the temple wall. Inside is a massive Shiva Linga.
- Along with the temple, there are palaces with Mandapas or pavilions.
- Kings held court in these mandapas. They issued orders to their subordinates.
- There are also Barracks for the army.
Q.3: Describe temple-towns and pilgrimage centers.
Answer: Temple-Towns and Pilgrimage Centers:
- Temple towns represent a very important pattern of urbanization. For example, Thanjavur is a temple town and so an important pilgrimage center.
- Urbanization is the process by which cities develop.
- Temples were often central to the economy and society: (i) rulers built temples to demonstrate their devotion to various deities. (ii) they also endowed temples with grants of land & money to carry out elaborate rituals, feed pilgrims etc.
- Pilgrims also made donations.
Q.4: Why did European sailors undertake voyages to the Indian subcontinent in the 15th century?
Answer: In the 15th century European sailors undertook difficult voyages of sea routes. They were driven by the desire to find ways of reaching the Indian subcontinent and obtaining spices.
Q.5: Give an account of the Journey of Columbus.
Answer: On the assumption that the earth was round, Christopher Columbus, an Italian sailor, decided to sail westwards across the Atlantic Ocean to find a route to India. But he landed in the West Indies. He was followed by sailors and conquerors from Spain and Portugal, who occupied large parts of central & South America, often, destroying earlier settlements in the area.
Long type Questions with their Answers
Q.1: Give an account of Hampi.
- The architectural splendor of Hampi: It is located in the Krishna-Tungabhadra basin. It was the centre of the Vijayanagara Empire. The magnificent ruins at Hampi reveal a well - fortified city.
- The architecture of Hampi was distinctive. The buildings in the royal complex had splendid arches, domes and pillared halls with niches for holding sculptures, with well planed orchards and pleasure gardens.
- Hampi was famous for commercial and cultural activities.
- Moors, chettis and agents of European traders like the Portuguese, thronged the market of Hampi.
- The Mahanavami festival was one of the most important festivals celebrated at Hampi. Archeologists have found the Mahanavami platform where the king ereceived guests and accepted tributes from subordinate chiefs.
- Hampi fell into ruin following the defeat of Vijayanagara in 1565 by the Deccani Sultans. The sultans included the rulers of Golconda, Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Berar and Bidar.
Q.2: Describe Surat as a gate-way to the west.
Answer: Surat in Gujarat was the emporium means, showcase of Western trade during the Mughal period. Surat was the gate-way for trade with West Asia via the gulf of Ormuz. Surat is also called the gate to Mecca because many pilgrim ships set sail from here. The city was cosmopolitan. People of all casts and creeds lived there. In the 17th century the Portuguese, Dutch and English had their factories and warehouses at Surat. There were also several retail and whole-sale shops selling cotton textiles. The textiles of Surat were famous for their gold lace borders (Zari). They had a market in West Asia, Africa and Europe. Surat hundis were honoured in the far off markets of Cairo in Egypt, Basra in Iraq and Antwerp in Belgium. The factors responsible for decline of Surat were mainly the –
- Loss of markets and productivity as a result of the decline of the Mughal Empire.
- Control of the sea routes by the Portuguese.
- Competition from Mumbai where the English East India Company shifted its head quarters in 1668.
Q.3: Describe the voyage of Vasco-da-gama.
Answer: Vasco-da-gama, a Portuguese sailor, was one of those who sailed across the Atlantic to the African coast. He went round it, crossing over to the Indian Ocean. He reached Calicut in 1498, and returned to Lisbon. During his voyage he lost two of his four ships and of the 170 men at the start of the journey, only 54 survived. In spite of the obvious hazards, the routes that were opened up proved to be extremely profitable. English, Dutch and French sailors followed him.
Towns, Trades and Crafts Persons | Class VII, NCERT (CBSE) Social Science | Chapter 6, Our Past II - NCERT Solutions for Textbook Exercise Questions