Farman: A royal edict or royal order which has been issued by the king or emperor.
Qazi: A judge in the Mughal period for Mughals. During the British period also the criminal courts were under a Qazi and a Mufti.
Mufti: A jurist of Muslim community who is responsible for expounding the law that the Qazi would administer.
Dharmashastras: Sanskrit texts which prescribe social rules and codes of behavior composed from C (Century) 500 BCE (before Christ Era) onwards.
Sample Questions (following latest CCE pattern of questions)
Short type Questions with their Answers
Q.1: How were the regional kingdoms set up after Aurangzeb’s death?
Ans: After his death in 1707, several Mughal governors (Subadars) and big Zamindars began asserting their authority and setting up regional kingdoms.
Q.2: Which new power began emerging on the political scene after the fall of Mughals?
Ans: By the second half of the 18th century, a new power began emerging on political horizon. This power was the British.
Q.3: How could mercantile company make profits?
- Mercantile trading companies in those days made profits primarily by excluding competition.
- They could buy cheap & sell dear.
Q.4: What led to intense conflicts of the companies with local rulers?
- The effort to fortify settlements and carry on profitable trades led to intense conflicts with local rulers.
- The company found it difficult to separate trade from politics.
Q.5: When and where was the first English factory set up?
Ans: The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651. This was the base from which the company’s traders who were known at that time as ‘factors’ operated.
Q.6: Name the village which the company got from the Mughal officials.
Ans: Name of one village was Kalikata, which later grew into the city of Calcutta or Kolkata as it is known today.
Q.7: Who was the last Mughal powerful ruler?
Ans: Aurangzeb was the last Mughal powerful ruler.
Q.8: Why could Delhi not function as an effective center?
Ans: As we know that Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal ruler but after his death there was no such effective Mughal ruler to rule the country. So, Zamindars started to rule the country but they didn’t give such importance to Delhi. The Zamindars wanted to make their own profit. They did not want Delhi as the capital of their kingdom. When Aurangzeb died in 1707, then Subadars and big Zamindars began to assert their authority and establishing regional kingdoms. So, Delhi could no longer function as an effective center.
Q.9: Did you know how Plassey got its name?
Ans: Plassey is an anglicized pronunciation of Palashi. The place derived its name from the Palash tree known for its beautiful red flowers that yield Gulal, the powder used in the festival of Holi.
Long type Questions with their Answers
Q.1: Explain major features of the Doctrine of Lapse.
Ans: The major features of the Doctrine of Lapse are:
- The Doctrine of Lapse was devised by Lord Dalhousie who was the Governor General of India from 1848 to 1856. According to this doctrine - if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would ‘lapse’. It would become a part of company territory.
- The company annexed several kingdoms simply by applying this doctrine.
- These kingdoms included Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) and Jhansi (1854).
- At last the company also annexed Awadh in 1856. This time the British argued that they were ‘obliged by duty’ to take over Awadh in order to free the people from the misgovernment of Nawab.
- Enraged by the humiliating way in which the Nawab was deposed, the people of Awadh joined the great revolt that broke out in 1857.
Q.2: Why was there a competition amongst the European companies and what was the result?
Ans: There was a competition amongst the European companies because all of them wanted to gain control over India which was well-known for its spices and other goods. Indian was known as the ‘Land of Spices’. Indian spices like - pepper, cloves, cardamom & cinnamon were in great demand in European market. The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe. The European companies used to purchase these things at a very low price in India and sold them at a huge profit in the European market.
The problem was that all the companies were interested in buying the same things. So the only way the trading company could flourish was by eliminating rival competitors. The competition and the urge to secure markets therefore led to fierce battles between the trading companies. Throughout the 17th & 18th centuries they regularly sank each other’s ships, blockaded routes and prevented rival ships from moving with the supplies of goods. They had to carry their trades with arms and fortify their trading posts.
Q.3: Why did the British find it difficult to separate trade from politics?
Ans: There was already an intense competition amongst the European companies who were trading in India. This led to fierce battles amongst them. Throughout the 17th & 18th centuries they were regularly engaged in sinking each other’s ships, blockaded routes and prevented rival ships from moving with the supplies of goods. They had to carry their trades with arms and fortify their trading posts. This effort to fortify settlements and carry on profitable trade also led to intense conflicts with local rulers. Therefore the company found it difficult to separate trade from politics.
Q.4: Why did the company official win the Battle of Plassey & how?
Ans: In 1757, Robert Clive led the company’s army against Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah of Bengal at Plassey. Mir Zafar was the commander-in-chief of Siraj-ud-daulah’s army who was secretly promised by the company officials that if he supports the British and loses the battle against the British then he would be made the future Nawab of Bengal. After this Mir Zafar deceived Siraj-ud-daulah and never ordered his army to fight and thus deliberately lost the battle. The Battle of Plassey is considered to be very important in the History of India since this was the first major victory of the British in India which made them much more superior than before.
Q.5: What is the meaning of ‘Nabob’?
Ans: ‘Nabobs’ were the people who managed to return with huge money and wealth to their own countries from India and led a lavish life. Nabob is an anglicized pronunciation of the Indian word Nawab. Nabobs were considered as the social climbers in the British society and were often ridiculed or made fun in plays and cartoons.
Q.6: What is the policy of ‘Paramountcy’?
Ans: Under Lord Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India, the policy of Paramountcy was started. According to this policy, the authority of the company was paramount or supreme and therefore its power was greater than the power of Indian states. According to this policy, the British could annex or capture any Indian kingdom.
Q.7: What were the policies used for expressions?
Ans: The policies used for expressions during the British period were -
(i) Policy of Non-Intersection.
(ii) Policy of Paramountcy.
(iii) Doctrine of Lapse.
(iv) Direct Annexation
Our Pasts - III, Class 8, From Trade to Territory -