CBSE, Class 10, History (India and the Contemporary World - II)
Section I: Events and Processes (The Rise of Nationalism in Europe)
NCERT Textbook Exercise
Q.1: Write a note on:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek War of Independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini - He was a young revolutionary of Italy who played a significant in promoting the idea of a unified Italian state. He believed that God intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. At that time Italy was divided into a number of small states and kingdoms. During the 1830s, Mazzini tried to overthrow different monarchies and led a revolution to unify Italy. He also set up two secret revolutionary organizations, namely Young Italy and Young Europe. But the revolution failed and Mazzini was sent into exile. However, his ideas later inspired Cavour who ultimately unified in the second half of the 19th century.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour - Of the seven states of Italy, only Sardinia - Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. When the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy, the responsibility to establish a unified Italy fell upon this Italian state. King Victor Emmanuel II was its ruler and Cavour was the Chief Minister.
Cavour led the movement to unify the separate states of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. He had a powerful diplomatic alliance with France, which helped him to defeat the Austrian forces in 1859. Thus, in 1861, Italy was unified and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the King of unified Italy.
(c) The Greek War of Independence - This was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against Ottoman Empire. The Greek nationals got influenced by the idea of Liberal nationalism. In this war the Greeks were supported by the West European countries, while the poets and artists, who added romanticism to the Greek struggle of independence, also participated in this war against Ottoman Empire. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament - The German middle class decided to vote for an all - German National Assembly in 1848, and hence came to Frankfurt. Around 1831 persons were elected. They comprised the National Assembly. The assembly decided to organize Frankfurt Parliament in the church of St. Paul. Thus, on 18th May, 1848 the famous Frankfurt Parliament was convened. The assembly decided that the German nation would be a monarchy controlled by Parliament, and offered this term to the Prussian King. But he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The parliament faced strong opposition from aristocracy and military. The Parliament was dominated by the middle class who resisted the demands of workers and artisans. As a result of this the middle class lost their mass support. Ultimately, the monarchy and military combined together with aristocracy, won over the liberal nationalist middle class and the assembly was forced to disband.
Therefore, the Frankfurt Parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and victory of monarchy.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles - Women played a very significant role in the nationalist struggle all over the world. They led the movements, faced the tortures of police, stood by their male counterparts, spread the idea of liberal nationalism and also participated in the various revolutionary organizations. For example, we have studied how men and women participated equally in the movements of the French Revolution. Liberty is personified as a women and also liberal nationalism proposed the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe. But in spite of their active participation in nationalist struggles, they were given little or no political rights, right to vote etc. till the end of 19th century.
Q.2: What steps did French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Ans: The French revolutionaries took following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
(1) They introduced the ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citogen (the citizen).
(2) These ideas emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(3) They choose a new French flag, to replace the former royal standard.
(4) The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens.
(5) They composed new hymns, took oaths and commemorated martyrs, all in the name of nation.
(6) They established a centralized administrative system, which formulated uniform laws for all citizens.
(7) They adopted a uniform system of weights and measures and abolished internal custom duties.
(8) They promoted French over the regional dialects.
(9) They further declared that it was the mission and destiny of the French nation to liberate people of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other people of Europe to become nations.
Q.3: who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Ans: Marianne was the female allegory of French nation. Similarly, Germania was the female allegory of German nation.
They stood as personifications of ideals like ‘Liberty’ and ‘The Republic’. They were portrayed in such a way that it sought to give an abstract idea of the nation in a concrete form and would instill a sense of nationality in the citizens of these countries.
Q.4: Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Ans: The liberal minded middle class of German Confederacy met in the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, with an objective of establishing Germany as a nation. But they failed miserably. The parliament ended with monarchial, military and aristocratic triumph. Later on, the Chief Minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismark led the movement of unity of the German Confederacy. He organized the military wars and mobilized bureaucracy against the countries which had occupied the German states. He fought three wars for over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France, which he won. This completed the process of German unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Q.5: What changes did Napoleon introduced to make the administrative system more efficient in territories ruled by him?
Ans: Napoleon introduced following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the areas ruled by him:
1. He established civil code in 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code. It did away with all privileges based on birth. It established equality before law and secured the right to property.
2. He simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
3. In towns too, guild systems were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
4. Peasants, artisans, businessmen and workers enjoyed the new found freedom.
By introducing these changes Napoleon made the whole administrative system more rational and efficient.
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